Standard I/O Cable Assemblies
Cloom provides Standard I/O Cable Assemblies in a variety of sizes, types, and styles.
Except custom-made cable assemblies, we also make standard cables which allow us to satisfy a wide range of requirements. We can create custom overmoulds for almost any standard I/O technology, using specific colours and even including logos to help customers create unique assemblies that showcase their brands. The most common types of interfaces we make are listed below:
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply between computers, peripheral devices and other computers. Released in 1996, the USB standard is currently maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB IF). There have been three generations of USB specifications: USB 1.x, USB 2.0 and USB 3.x; the fourth called USB4 is scheduled to be published in the middle of 2019.
USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing devices, digital still and video cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices.
USB connectors have been increasingly replacing other types for battery chargers of portable devices.
DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.
DisplayPort was designed to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. The interface is backward compatible with other interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards.
HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed and uncompressed LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID. (p. III) CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the Digital Visual Interface (DVI). No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapter is used. (§C) The CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device. (§6.3)
Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since the initial release of the technology, but all use the same cable and connector. Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance, resolution and colour spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, and CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) extensions.
Production of consumer HDMI products started in late 2003. In Europe, either DVI-HDCP or HDMI is included in the HD ready in-store labelling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra in 2005. HDMI began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006. As of January 6, 2015 (twelve years after the release of the first HDMI specification), over 4 billion HDMI devices have been sold.
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content.
This interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing for digital display standards Plug and Display (P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP). Although DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in other consumer electronics such as television sets and DVD players.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers. Through widespread adoption, the term has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware.
VGA was the last IBM graphics standard to which the majority of PC clone manufacturers confirmed, making it the lowest common denominator that virtually all post-1990 PC graphics hardware can be expected to implement. It was officially followed by IBM’s Extended Graphics Array (XGA) standard but was effectively superseded by numerous slightly different extensions to VGA made by clone manufacturers, collectively known as Super VGA.
Today, the VGA analog interface is used for high-definition video, including resolutions of 1080p and higher. While the transmission bandwidth of VGA is high enough to support even higher resolution playback, there can be picture quality degradation depending on cable quality and length. How discernible this degradation depends on the individual’s eyesight and the display, though it is more noticeable when switching to and from digital inputs like HDMI or DVI.
The DB style connector is a common connector used in many computers, audio/video, and data applications. The official name is D-subminiature, but many people call it “D-sub” or just “DB”. The connector gets its name from its trapezoidal shape that resembles the letter “D”. Most DB connectors have two rows of pins. Common types of D-sub connectors are DB9 and DB25, used on PCs for serial and parallel ports.
One special type of D-sub connectors is the High-Density DB style, which looks just like a regular DB connector, only with pins that are slightly smaller and placed closer together. This is typically referred to as an “HD” connector. HD connectors often have three rows of pins instead of two. The most common HD connector is the HD15, which is found on PC video cards and monitors. DB and HD connectors use thumbscrews to secure the connector in place.
Another type of D-sub is the MD, or Micro DB connector. This connector is slimmer than a standard D-sub, with pins even smaller than the ones used on HD connectors. The MD is also commonly called a “half-pitch” DB connector. These are often used in SCSI applications, and the most popular types are the MD50 and MD68 connections. MD connectors can use latch-clips or thumbscrews as anchoring mechanisms.
D-sub connectors are usually described by the total number of pins that they can hold. In some cases, a DB25 connector may only have 4 or 5 pins loaded into it; however, it is still called a “DB25” connector and not a “DB4” or “DB5”. Another example is the HD15 connector used by monitors—most monitor cables only are loaded with 14 pins, but it is still called an HD15 connector.
A DB9 connector has 9 pins arranged in two rows, with one row on top of the other. The top row has 5 pins and the lower row has 4 pins. This interface is commonly used for RS-232 serial applications. For several years, DB9 ports were standard equipment on PCs; nowadays, many newer computers are being built without them. On a PC, the serial port is commonly a DB9 male.
A DB15 connector has 15 pins arranged in two rows, with one row on top of the other. The top row has 8 pins and the lower row has 7. Not to be confused with HD15, which has three rows of pins, this connector can be found on sound cards, older AUI network cards and devices, as well as legacy Macintosh® monitors. This is commonly referenced as the Game port. This is due to the fact that the most common peripheral for this port was a joystick or video game controller.
A DB25 connector has 25 pins arranged in two rows, with one row on top of the other. The top row has 13 pins and the lower row has 12 pins. DB25 connectors are most often used for parallel, RS-232 serial, or SCSI applications. An older PC would normally have one DB25 female parallel port. In Parallel applications, the DB25 connector is sometimes referred to as the IEEE-1284 Type A connector. On older PCs, a male DB25 serial port could sometimes be found instead of a DB9. DB25 SCSI connections are female and can be found on older Apple computers as well as on expansion cards for SCSI peripheral devices.
A DB37 connector has 37 pins arranged in two rows, with one row on top of the other. The top row has 19 pins and the lower row has 18. This connector is used sometimes with Cisco®networking hardware and other applications that use RS-449 serial communication.
An HD15 connector has 15 pins arranged in three rows. Each row has 5 pins with the middle row slightly offset from the top and bottom. The HD15 is a High-Density DB-style connector, so it can also be called an HD DB15. Another popular name is “VGA connector”, although it is used in video applications that support much higher resolutions (SVGA, XGA, UXGA, etc.). On most HD15 male connectors, there is one pin (pin 9) missing from the middle row. The HD15 connector is a very common connector used mostly as a video interface for computers and monitors. It can also be found on HD displays, and on older HD source devices such as satellite receivers and cable boxes.