Electrical Connector — Everything You Need to Know

Electrical Connector circuitry comprises various components, including cables and wires, to achieve a set goal. It is worthy of note that the entire circuitry would be useless without the help of connectors.

In today’s article, we’ll be looking at several things about connectors ranging from their composition to gender and more.

Before we nose dive into the article, let’s answer the question What is a Wire Connector?

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1. Electrical Connector– What is a Wire Connector?

Wire connectors are electro-mechanical devices that combine various circuits. Depending on the function they are to perform, they possess different features. Some of these features are their mating type, materials of terminals, etc. In general, in an emergency or dangerous event, the connector makes it easy to connect and quick disconnect.

1.1 Electrical ConnectorBasic Composition

  • Housing

The electrical connector housing is simply a case in which the terminal stays. This housing protects against electrical shock or(short-circuiting) and ensures connections are firm and stable. The materials used in the making of connector housing are insulators (Plastics, ceramics, etc.)

  • Terminals

These are the pins that carry electric current from the source to its destination. They are fundamentally conductors, made of metals, and while some are of other conducting material.

1.2 Electrical ConnectorGender

Many electrical connectors have male and female types. This gender differentiation is primarily due to the shape and function of the ends of the connector. Male-end connectors are called plugs, and female-ends as sockets/jacks. The pins (plugs) connect to the sockets forming a temporal or permanent coupling.

  • Male (Plug)

It is a connector attached to either a cable or a piece of equipment with exposed terminals. They can be inserted into a receptacle to form a couple. This type of connector is also known as a plug.

  • Female (Socket/Jack)

Inside of the holes is conductive terminals to complete the circuit when in contact with the male connector. They are usually attached to either wire, cable, or equipment, similar to the male connectors.

1.3 Electrical ConnectorGeometry

The geometry of electrical connectors is mainly about the shape of the connectors. We can have a particular type of electrical connector having different forms or where its connection point faces. This geometry allows for easy connection and reduces the strain on the connector when installed in an area.

We can categorize the geometry of electric connectors into three;

  1. Straight: This type of electrical connectors have no bends. They are straight and fit well during connection. Depending on this shape, there are areas where the straight kind of connector is best for use.
  2. Right-angle: Elbow connectors is another name given to right-angle electrical connectors. These elbow connectors make connections easy in some difficult areas, precisely areas with limited space.
  3. Other: Other forms include circular connectors.

1.4 Electrical ConnectorFeatures of Connectors

Connectors possess different qualities, and their characteristics determine their use. The following are features of electrical connectors:

  • Keyed Connectors

Suitable for use when the coupling is in the correct direction. This concept prevents the wrong insertion, in turn damaging the terminals.

  • Locked Connectors

The locked connector feature prevents unexpected disconnection due to an external force and holds the connection tightly in place.

  • Sealed Connectors

These are connectors built to withstand underwater pressure (to a certain depth) and still functioning properly.

  • Waterproof Wire Connectors

They shield the connection from water splashes and dampness. However, they are different from Sealed connectors as they cannot withstand underwater pressure.

  • Moisture-proof/Oil-proof Connectors

They prevent electrical damage from oil or moisture.

  • Filter Connector

They filter electromagnetic interference away from interfering with electrical signals in connectors.

  • Shield Connectors

Protects against electrostatic discharge from damaging the cables and components of an electrical device.

2. Electrical Connector– Types of Wire Connectors

2.1 Electrical ConnectorConnector Level

Wire-to-board or subassembly-to-subassembly level: Here, connectors join the various components to PCBs of the computer.

Box-to-box or input/output level

IC chip or chip-to-package level

IC package or package-to-board level

PC board-to-board level

2.2 Electrical ConnectorMain Connector Types

1. Audio and Video Connectors

Audio and video connectors are electrical connectors designed to deliver audio and optical signals from source to destination. The audio connectors are cables connected to audio equipment to carry signals. Part of its build is a ground (Earth) to prevent stray charges from damaging its equipment. Applications for this connector type are in various fields where sound waves are involved, including the military.

Male and Female Audio and Video Connectors

Male and Female Audio and Video Connectors

2.  Electrical ConnectorAutomotive Electrical Connectors

These types of connectors find applications used in vehicles. As innovation continues into electric cars and automated vehicles, the need for these connectors is inevitable. Many vehicle systems (Sensors, car diagnosis, etc.) are currently more compatible with Automotive electrical connectors.

Automotive Electrical Connectors come in various types too:

  • A for attaching automobile head units to the power source, etc.
  • B for audio connections like speakers in vehicles
  • C for connecting peripherals like woofers, CD decks, etc.
  • D for connecting GPS systems
Vehicle Power Cable Outlet

Vehicle Power Cable Outlet

3. Electrical ConnectorBoard Mount Connectors

Board Mounted Connectors connect components on a PC board, and they are mounted on the boards and use pins to connect devices to their board.

4. Electrical ConnectorBoard to Board Connectors

These are best suited for printed circuit boards. Here no wire/cable is required for connection. Two or more panels connected with the aid of metal pins in plastic cases, all embedded on the board.

5. Electrical ConnectorCentronics Connectors

These are 36-pin connectors used to connect printers and other devices compatible with computers such as CD-Players.

6. Electrical ConnectorCircular Connectors

These are multi-pin connectors fundamentally designed for transmitting both power and signal, and they are external interfacing components of an electrical device. However, these connectors carry mixed signals (power and data) based on the design in some cases.

7. Electrical ConnectorCoaxial Connectors

In a way similar to optical fiber cables, Coaxial connectors have insulated conductive inner parts, and they have on them overlaid with an outer cylindrical conductor acting as a shield. Their protection layer is to prevent information loss during transfer, as this phenomenon is consistent with thermodynamics. Because of these layers, Coaxial connectors carry signals or data long distances without any information loss during transmission.

Applications include Radiofrequency transmission and CATV applications.

8. Electrical ConnectorDIN Connectors

In line with Deutsches Institut für Normung, the national organization for standardization in Germany. As can be seen in telecommunications, microphone, internet connection, etc. Applications of these connectors are in computers, connecting their microprocessors and RAMs. Many of these will be discussed later in this article.

9. Electrical ConnectorD-Subminiature Connectors

D-sub connectors are electrical connectors having a D-shape metal shield, used as network ports, game controller ports, etc. They have a male and female type.

10. Electrical ConnectorEdge Connectors

These onboard embedded devices form an external connection by having to pair with single-sided or double-sided PCBs. They have industry-standard power specifications such as voltage level, power, etc.

11. Electrical ConnectorFiber Channel Connectors

These are high-speed connectors used in Fiber Channel systems.

12. Electrical ConnectorFireWire Connectors

IEEE 1394 is another name for Firewire connectors. Apple developed them around the 1990s to transfer data at a fast rate. However, these connectors are expensive.

13. Electrical ConnectorHeavy Duty Rectangular Connectors

As the name implies, they find application in transmitting high voltage power signals. They are to withstand large electrical loads, and they find their applications in industries where heavy-duty power transmission is needed.

14. Electrical ConnectorIC Interconnect Components

Used in low current devices, IC interconnect connects PCBs with microelectronic semiconductor chips. With fragile connector pins and the best suited to connecting ICs to boards. Either made of metals, plastics, or ceramic, but their pins are good conducting material.

15. Electrical ConnectorInstrument and Computer Power Connectors

It connects disk drives to the power supply. They have varying features depending on their applications. In general, they are cables that carry power to the various industries in the computer.

16. Medical Electronic Connectors

Medical electronics connectors find their applications in clinics, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities for connecting medical devices. Some Medical connectors are against electromagnetic signals interference during transmission.

17. Micro Connectors and Nano Connectors

They possess different features depending on their applications. Some micro connectors resist shocks or vibrations, while some, like coaxial cables, shields EM interference.

18. Military (MIL-SPEC) Connectors

Military (MIL-SPEC) connectors are for the military with Military Standard, “MIL-STD,” or “MIL-SPEC.” They function effectively under harsh environmental conditions.

19. Modular Connectors and RJ Connectors

There is no significant difference between Modular connectors and RJ connectors. They are connectors used for telephones and Ethernet.

20. Panel Interface Connectors

Panel interface connectors (PICs) provide the ability to interact with a device’s components without opening the doors. This connector type avoids potential safety hazards. In some panels, you can rectify faults using an external port, and it is through this external interface you can use the Panel Interface Connector.

21. PC Card Connectors

It is used to connect PC cards and other devices to the computer.

22. RF and Microwave Connectors

Radiofrequency (RF) is the rate at which wave signals oscillate. These oscillations provide the right EM field that fosters wireless transmission of signals. RF and microwave connectors effectively transmit high frequencies signals, and they find applications in Broadcast industries.

23. Solar Connectors

Solar connectors are used in solar energy systems to link various panels electrically. These solar connectors are gender-based – as explained earlier in this article.

These connectors come in various types (PV, MC3, MC4, etc.) and shapes (Y-joint, X-joint, U-joint).

24. The Solenoid Valve Connectors

The connect solenoid valves (hydraulic), pumps, pressure switches, and motors. They often serve as environmentally resistant junction boxes, and these connectors have a protective feature against environmental hazards.

25. Terminal Blocks

Simply put, Terminal blocks are blocks with partitions where two or more connectors connect. They have insulated bodies to prevent electric shock from the current-carrying conductors. These blocks hold various terminals together with the help of a screw. They can also be used to terminate an exposed terminal end, such as ground wires.

 Isolated Terminal Blocks

 Isolated Terminal Blocks

26. Thermocouple Connectors

With thermocouple connectors, temperature signals reach a destination point, either to a monitor or a control unit.

In another sense, it serves as an extension of a thermocouple sensor.

  • Type E, J, K, N, and T are the most used thermocouple connectors. They are sometimes called Base Metal Thermocouple.
  • Type B, C, R, and S are for higher temperature ranges.

27. USB Connectors

Suitable for devices using the USB standard port. They connect USB-compatible devices.

28. Wire to Board Connectors

Wire-to-board connectors interconnect printed circuit boards (PCBs) using connectors attached to wires.

29. Wire to Wire Connectors

They are electrical connectors linking two wire-terminated connectors together. The male and female wire-to-wire connectors are designed to couple firmly.

3. Electrical Connector– Materials of Wire Connector

It is vital to consider the various materials used in building these electrical or electronic connectors. The choice of connector materials determines signal transfer rate, temperature tolerance, and flexibility, and Connectors are insulating and conductive materials.

The insulating materials make up the housing of the connectors. Depending on the application of the connectors, materials like plastics, ceramics, etc., are used. Conductive materials are for the terminals, and they include metals, silicon, etc.

Here are some common terminal materials one can use.


Brass is the least expensive for the weight of the three metals, and they have excellent properties suitable for conducting electrical signals.

However, Brass metals have low yield strength. Metal’s ability to return to its original shape when stretched or distorted. This property implies that sockets made of Brass metal will become loose after a series of insertions. This loose grip will, in turn, yield what is called Partial contact with the connection. KK terminals have Brass as a making consistent.

 Four Pin Brand Electrical Connector

 Four Pin Brand Electrical Connector

Phosphor Bronze

Phosphor bronze constitutes 0.2% phosphorus, 5% tin, and 94.8% copper. It is better in yield strength compared to Brass. As Brass, they have good electrical properties. Phosphor Bronze-made connectors have a low thermal conductivity, making them useful in devices operating at low temperatures. This property also reduces heat generation during transmission. They are fair in price too.

Beryllium Copper

Beryllium copper is a copper-based alloy with 0.5% – 3% of Beryllium and other contents. It has a combination of high yield strength with non-sparking and non-magnetic properties. With high thermal conductivity, Beryllium Copper can withstand high-temperature zones. The price is relatively fair compared to Phosphor Bronze.

High Copper Alloy

This alloy contains more than 96% copper. It has excellent thermal, electrical, and physical properties, making it useful in the Automobile industry and other industries operating in high-temperature regions.

4. Electrical Connector– Factors to Consider When Purchasing Electrical Connectors

Having gone through the details above, one might just be confused about which electrical connector to get. In this section, we walk you through the various factors to consider when purchasing electrical connectors.

Electrical requirement

The electrical need is the first factor to consider before purchasing a connector. You will have to know the required voltage and current capacity. Suppose the conductors would be carrying high voltage and current. In that case, the connectors will have to withstand such power and be resistant to temperature. As terminals, overtime may heat up, thereby heating the connector in contact with it. Connectors with thicker pins and high insulation will be best for high-power devices or cables.


Where will the connectors be used? Underwater, underground, bare ground, or in airplanes? The environment matters as the electrical requirement does. For example, you will be looking for connectors resistant to vibrations if the climate is prone to mechanical vibrations.

Generally, connectors with environmental sealing are best suitable for liquids, moisture, dust, or combustible gas.


The mating cycle tells of the connector’s durability. If you plan on using a connector in areas with a high mating cycle, you should consider this factor. Connectors with a firm grip over time can withstand a high mating cycle, and this feature is so to prevent partial contact.

Signal Type

What type of signals will be transmitted? Analog or digital, high-frequency signals? Coaxial connectors have high insulating features to prevent the loss of information during transmission over a long distance.

A Coaxial Cable and Connector

A Coaxial Cable and Connector


It is no news that people want the best and at the lowest price. However, reality has it that, to some extent, the best products come with a prize.

It is your responsibility as an engineer or manufacturer to strike a balance between profitability and functionality.

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5. Electrical Connector-  6 Common Issues About Connectors in Custom Wire Harness

Having looked at connectors so far, we have established that connectors do not work independently, and they function as a unit, which is called a Wire/Cable harness.

Wire harness brings with it lots of benefits, and some include ease, troubleshooting, and flame-retardant.

Woman Performing Quality Check on the Various Parts of A Wire Harness

Woman Performing Quality Check on the Various Parts of A Wire Harness

However, there are some common mistakes observed in a custom wire harness. These mistakes may be familiar, but their impact on a project could be fatal. We will reveal six common issues about connectors in a custom wire harness.

  • Custom Wire Harness–Unprotected Contacts

The ability for electrical signals and power to be transferred from one point to another is dependent on the contact. If there is no contact between the cable and connector, the call will break. This feature place touches as a vital join to protect. However, we see unprotected connections in the wire harness due to mistakes. An unprotected contact exposes the contact pins to the risk of attack from corrosion, moisture, and other external factors.

Corroded contacts have their conductivity reduced, which in turn can cut-short power supply.

Unprotected Contacts

These are enough reasons not to make the mistake of purchasing or manufacturing wire harnesses with unprotected contacts, and they should have adequate protection with layered coatings.

  • Custom Wire Harness–Poor Crimping Techniques

Crimping, which joins wires with connectors using a crimp, creates a firm connection between cables and connectors. Nonetheless, if done wrongly or with a faulty tool, it can affect the relationship, like a short circuit.

Man Crimping An Automotive Terminal to A Cable

Man Crimping An Automotive Terminal to A Cable

After crimping, it is essential to ensure the device is in good working condition and fits the cable’s size.

At CLOOM Tech, we ensure to follow industry-standard procedures in manufacturing wire harnesses. We employ a high level of precision and caution to deliver value to our clients globally.

  • Custom Wire Harness–No Strain Relief

Every manufacturer knows about Strain relief, but sadly some do not consider it when designing wire harnesses. Strain relief merely allows some additional length of cables to make room for mechanical movement.

If not considered, it can lead to a breakdown of the wire harness, resulting in a total power failure.

At CLOOM Tech, our certified engineers and technicians will serve you best in customizing your wire harness.

We are putting into consideration all factors, including strain relief, during manufacturing. Value is what we serve.

  • Custom Wire Harness–Poor Wire Harness Layout

Owing to the benefits of custom wire harnesses, applications for this type of connection spans many industries. The vehicle industry seems to be the most use of the cable harness /wire harness.  The manufacturer of any custom wire harness considers every layout and design before production. However, the increase in demand for more custom wire harnesses puts producers on edge.

Sometimes they fail to do a proper layout and design as they have deadlines to meet up. This act, in turn, gives rise to continuous alterations in electrical connectors. These frequent alterations weaken or eventually damage the contact.  These are the result of poor wire harness layout. Producers and manufacturers with poor wire harness layout may tend not to follow project specifications.

As part of the modus operandi at CLOOM Tech, our team takes the design process seriously. It is a vital stage in making a custom wire harness, and we are accurate and precise when it comes to wire harness layout and design.

  • Custom Wire Harness–Missing Hardware

There have been situations where a custom wire harness has wires with some missing terminal connectors. This missing hardware is a mistake from the manufacturers. Sadly, some manufacturers fail to double-check the custom wire harness before shipping it to clients.

If technicians double-check work is done and crosschecks it with the layout design, this mistake is invalid.

  • Dealing with Contact Retention Failures

The moment a connector joins with a terminal, it should fit and stay firm. Sometimes, this is not the case. The contact retention failure makes contact loose and can experience a push-back effect, affecting electric current flow.

Hence, it is something to be taken seriously. Here are a few methods you can apply to contact retention failure for a custom wire harness.

  • Push-click-pull method

This method is simple. It involves inserting the connector into the terminal until the retaining mechanism clicks. After this, you pull the connector a little to check how taut it has become.

This method is a basic form of testing, and it requires no tool or equipment for testing. However, it is most prone to human error, as there is no specific amount of force to apply.

  • Content Retention Hand Tools

In this method, tools verify the retention of contact. To check how taut it is during the pull, the same force can be measured and recorded. There will be little or no interference from human error.

However, it costs more to practice.

Also, verification takes so much time as it requires testing every pin one after the other. This testing also may contribute to the fault of the nails. After assembly, you may discover some errors due to the use of those hand tools for testing.

  • Pin-Sight Guided Assembly Tool with Contact Retention Verification

The Cirris’ Pin-Sight tool guides technicians to correctly insert wires into the right cavity. It does have the ability to determine a specified force with which the technician can pull. Until you met that specified pull force, the tool would not move to the next wire. This tool is easy to use as it integrates into the assembly process. It also provides a specified force when using for contact retention verification.

  • Electrical Testing Method

Unlike the Hand tool method, the electric testing method uses an electric current to analyze the connectors’ contact retention. This analysis the electric tool does together without having to test them one after the other. This feature makes it the fastest and most trusted method when it comes to contact retention.

6. Electrical Connector– 8 Reasons Waterproof Connectors Can Help You Power in Advance

In this part of our article, we will consider eight reasons waterproof connectors can help you.

By definition, waterproof connectors are electrical connectors explicitly designed to resist liquids, damp and dust. They have insulating materials like rubber and plastics, and they also come alongside screws. These screws help ensure that a watertight connection prevents water or oil from seeping into the joint.

  1. Waterproof Connectors Not Manufactured for the Environment

Using a waterproof connector can protect the assembly from moisture though not made for a particular environment. As said, water can attack the connectors, causing them to decay and get damaged.

A waterproof connector for the custom wire harness is necessary with much rainfall, dust, hurricanes, and high humidity.

  1. Corrosion of Contact Pins

Contact pins decay, wear out, and become less conductive when exposed to warm temperature, water, or moisture.

It becomes loose when connected and, in turn, affects the connection.

A Male Connector with Exposed Pins

A Male Connector with Exposed Pins

The protective feature of waterproof connectors affords the prevention of corrosion on the contact pins.

  1. Excessive Temperature Can Damage Insulation

This excessive temperature is another reason we recommend using waterproof connectors in your custom wire harness. It will protect the connectors against extreme temperature or cold, expose the environment, and prevent cable insulation from damage over time.

  1. The Mating Mechanism Can Fail

Owing to frequent insertions, high temperature, and others, the mating grip of connectors fails. This failure allows for moisture build-up and, in turn, damages the custom cable.

But with a waterproof custom harness, there will be no reason to panic or make frequent changes to damaged connectors.  They provide good durability and workability in extreme conditions to serve you better.

  1. May Damage Mating Components and Overmolding

Waterproof connectors come with screw features that ensure that connections are air and watertight. Failure to do this allows water to seep into vital parts of the assembly and damage the contact and devices. With waterproof connectors, you are safe.

  1. Effect on Humidity on Electric Circuit

Moisture in electric circuits does not go along. Hence, using waterproof connectors will be the best solution in high humid areas. We’re sure you do not want a frequent change of custom cable assembly weekly because of damaging moisture connections.

  1. Corrosion and Contact Resistance

Contact resistance comes alongside the corrosion of metals, making it challenging to transfer electric current. Over time, this resistance to the current flow leads to the heating up of connectors and cables.

You can avoid all of this stress and drama when using waterproof connectors in your custom wire assembly. We offer quality and at the best price.

  1. Waterproof Connectors-Prevent Contact Oxidation

Distinctively from corrosion, oxidation occurs when air naturally reacts with metals. Using waterproof connectors will shield your connections, contact point, and custom wire assembly from oxidation.

Group of Electrical Connectors

Group of Electrical Connectors

We believe the above reasons are more than enough for you to make the right decision.

Another thing we will let you know about electrical connectors is DB connectors. In the next section of this article, we will be looking at that.

7. D-Sub Connector – Everything You Need to Know

1. D-sub Connector

D-sub connectors are also called D-subminiature. They are one of the main types of electrical connectors, and they perform the function of interfacing a cable with a device. Their main goal is to create a connection between devices, just as other connectors do.

D-sub connector derived its name from the D shape of its metallic shield. Using D-sub connectors ensures that you do not miss its orientation. The shape of the metal shield will prevent mating if the direction is wrong.

A Typical Picture of A DB-15 connector with Blue Colored Insulation

A Typical Picture of A DB-15 connector with Blue Colored Insulation

Also, D-sub connectors have screws on both ends to secure firm connections against mechanical movement or vibrations. D-sub connectors are gender-based. By that we mean, it has both a male and female type of connectors. Its male connectors have two or more parallel rows of pins, while the female type has holes.

The number of pins denotes the type of D-sub connector it is. D-sub connectors with nine pins are DB9, the ones with 25 pins are called DB25, etc.

2. The Applications of DB Connector

As old as D-sub connectors have been in existence (1952), they are still relevant and used in

today’s world. They find their applications in printers, monitors, video games, controllers, etc.

Some applications include;

Electronic Office Systems

Some years back, the D-sub connectors connected most office equipment and computer peripherals to the desktop. They connect printers, mice, and other office equipment. For example, the DB25 (having 25 pins) connects printers to the computer.

A  Blue VGA Connected to A Monitor

A  Blue VGA Connected to A Monitor

Medical Equipment

Medical equipment requires an uninterrupted supply of power and signal, especially during use. For this reason, D-sub connectors are the best connectors to use, and they have screws to secure the connection against any mechanical movement or strain to disconnect it.

D-sub connectors in medicinal equipment can prevent interference from the surroundings. These connectors’ shielding effects can help keep display readings (in electrical signals) unaltered.

Some of the medical equipment where DB connectors are proper are imaging machines, Electrocardiography, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, etc.

Data Communications

Transferring data among devices, either from a printer to a computer or vice versa, becomes possible with D-sub connectors.

Precisely, RS-232 has the most comprehensive application in communications. It functions to transfer data from computers to printers.

Another application of D-sub connectors in data communication is with modems. Some devices have installed the male type on them, while the female modem connects to it.

Business Equipment

Business equipment Includes various devices like computers, communication devices, other office equipment used primarily for business. They utilize DB connectors to transfer data and power to their different equipment.

Security control rooms in airports, big stores, train stations, and others use D-sub connectors for surveillance devices.

They do this because D-sub cables are suitable for fast transferring data signals undistorted by stray EM signals.

Mobile Communications

D-sub connectors find their application in mobile networks. Their ability to transfer signals efficiently makes them preferable.  They also possess a connection securing feature that ensures the relationship stays in place without easily being disconnected.

Consumer Electronics

Consumer electronics are simply the electronics you can get from a store, especially for household use. They are either for entertainment, recreation, or communication, including video games, Telephones, TV sets, etc.

Some of these household electronics make use of D-sub connectors to function. For example, video games require a DB9 connector for their game controller.

3. The Types of D-sub Connectors 

We can classify D-sub connectors based on their connection method, connection duration, and number of pins and jacks;

Connection Methods

D-sub connectors have a locking technology feature with them. Not only that, but the D shape of the metal shield also ensures proper orientation during connection. It also has threaded screws on both ends. These screws ensure that every relationship is held in place without tampering and jostling, unlike HDMI or USB ports.

Connection Duration

D-sub ports also allow you to connect in different styles. For example, Crimping is suitable for temporal connection and soldering when you want a permanent relationship.

Number of Pins or Jacks

If you noticed, we have been consistent with the word D-sub. This consistency is because D-subminiature is a series with different types, but they all belong to the D-series. Of course, the D comes from the shape of the metal shield on their connectors.

A numbering and lettering system differentiates the various D-sub connectors. The letters span from A to E, depending on the metal shell size. Also, you could tell the type by counting the number of pins on a D-sub male connector. The connector name with either ‘P’ or ‘S’ stands for plug and socket. For example, DB-25P shows a D-sub connector with 25 pins, and it is a plug, and DE-9S says this is a nine socket (holes).

Letters A to E standard pin configurations are A=15 pin, B=25 pin, C=37 pin, D=50 pin, E=9 pin.

Another thing to note is that some D-sub connectors have labels like ‘HD,’ meaning High density. D-sub connector density is a measure of how closely packed the pins or jacks are in a shell. Connectors ending with HD imply a high density of plugs or jacks in its body.

4. DB Style Connectors

We have spoken about D-sub connectors classified by their number of pins and jacks. In this part of the article, we will be focusing on the various DB-style connectors.

  • DB- 9 Connector

This connector style has only nine pins in its male and female shell arranged in two rows. At the top row, there are five terminals and four terminals at the bottom row.

Two-dimensional Diagram of A DB-9 Connector

Two-dimensional Diagram of A DB-9 Connector

The DB-9 connectors are compatible with the ETA/TIA serial interface standard.

  • DB-15 Connector

DB-15 connector has 15 pins arranged in two rows—eight pins at the top row and seven pins below it.

DB 15 connectors are popularly known as Game ports because they serve to connect joysticks and game controllers. Aside from this use, they functioned very well as connectors for VGA connections, and they connected monitors, projectors, and computers.

  • DB-25 Connector

With 25 pins arranged in two rows, printers make use of the DB-25. They connect printers to computers, and their ability to transfer signals fast makes them suitable.

DB25 connectors also function well with the RS-232 serial, and they transmit asynchronous data through the RS-232 standard.

  • DB 37 Connector

The DB-37 connector has 37 pins arranged in two rows—nineteen pins at the top and 18 pins below.

Hardware that uses the RS-499 serial communication, like Cisco and other applications, uses a DB-37 connector. This connector has a broad metal shell for connecting.

A Man Connecting A DVI Cable with A D-sub Connector to A Monitor

A Man Connecting A DVI Cable with A D-sub Connector to A Monitor

Other areas where DB-37 connectors find their application are specific sensors, satellite antennas, and security control systems.

  • DB 50 Connector

DB 50 connectors have 50 pins. In this style of DB connectors, the 50 pins may appear in either two or three rows. For the two rows type, the top and bottom row has 25 pins each. The three rows of needles have 17 in the top, and the last row has 16 hands in the middle.

A Bundle of D-sub Connectors in A Cable Harness

A Bundle of D-sub Connectors in A Cable Harness

DB 50 connectors are works compatibly with sensors and control application. The vast number of pins enables the DB-50 to transmit different signals through a single wire.

5. Advantages and Disadvantages of DB Connector

There are always the pro and cons to everything. Here there are some benefits from D-sub. They include

– DB connectors do not have a specific length like USB. They can be used to connect distance devices in the industry.

– DB connectors have a connection securing tool. The screws at both sides of the connector function to keep mating firm and untampered unknowing.

As there are advantages, there are also disadvantages as to why these connectors aren’t favorable.

– One of the reasons USB, firewire, etc., existed was that the DB sub cables could not transmit data over the shortest time possible.

– The use of its thumbscrew makes the unplugging and plugging process difficult.

6. The Difference Between Connector, Plug, and Jack

Some persons interchangeably use the words connector, plug, and jack. We will now give you a clear picture of their differences.

  1. What is a Plug?

A plug is a piece of electrical equipment with outward extending metal terminals. These terminals are so that it inserts into a hole meant for it or a socket. The plug is the male gender of connectors.

An Electric Power Plug with Two External Terminals

An Electric Power Plug with Two External Terminals

An example is the power plug, which connects to the mains to carry power to a device.

  1. What is Jack?

A jack is a piece of electrical equipment, most time embedded on a device. It has holes into which a plug can fit properly. It is the female gender of an electrical connector.

An example is the audio jack. The audio jack has a depression in it that allows for the plug to insert into it. Most often, you can see more examples with sounds, microphones, audio mixers.

A Jack on an Amplifier Panel

A Jack on an Amplifier Panel

  1. What is a connector?

A connector could either be a plug or a jack, and it does not have a different form from those mentioned above.

8. DIN Connector – Everything You Need to Know

Another chapter that is part of our topic is the DIN connectors. Is the DIN connector a type of D-sub connector? Is it something different? In this chapter, we will be writing about everything you need to know about DIN connectors.

  1. What is DIN Connector?

DIN connector is a multi-pin electrical connector in line with Germany’s Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard.

It implies that DIN connectors do not refer to any particular type of connector.

A Black 5-pin DIN Male Cable

A Black 5-pin DIN Male Cable

DIN connector looks more like a circular connector with a circular metal sheath within which the round pins stay. The metal sheath provides the locking technology associated with DIN connectors, and it does allow the plugs to connect in a proper orientation to prevent the damage of its pins.

  1. Applications of DIN Connectors

There are two applications of DIN connectors. They are as follows.

Analog Audio: DIN connectors for the audio span across a range of applications. They aid connection in stereos, audio mixers, microphones, and others.

Before now, the Europeans used the 3/180″ and 5/180″ connectors for various audio equipment interconnection. These standardized connectors possessed features like an interference shield that enabled the smooth transmission of audio signals among connected equipment.

For example, connecting a stereo tape recorder to a stereo amplifier requires using a five-pin DIN connector. As with other connectors, the DIN connectors are gender-based – Male and Female connectors.

Male Connector

The male connectors bear the pins. When viewed outside the connector, these pins are in a specific arrangement, precisely 1- 4-2-5-3, from right to left.

Female Connector

Female connectors have the same numbering as male connectors but start from the left to the right.

Other users

Apart from audio equipment use, the DIN connectors found other areas of application. For example, the 5/180° connectors were of good use for;

  • MIDI or SYNC interface for electronic musical instruments
  • Controlling tilt of UT MS antennas (Antenna Interface Standard Group)
  • Connecting keyboard and mouse to personal computers
  • Connecting two controllers for radio-controlled model aircraft
  1. What are the Types of DIN Connector?

There are two types of DIN connectors. They are;

Circular Connector

All male connectors belong to this category of DIN connectors. They (plugs) have a circular metal skirt of 13.2mm in diameter, protecting all straight pins. These pins are 1.45mm thick and spaced equally at various angles.

Car Radio DIN Antenna Connector

DIN Plug Connector

These circular connectors have seven common patterns of arrangement of pins starting from three to eight pins.

Loudspeaker Connector

Loudspeaker connectors connect speakers and audio power amplifiers, and stereos.

Speaker terminals have two wires pairing together as one terminal. These wires are polarized, and hence they are often differentiated by the color of the wire. Wires colored red are wires carrying positive signals, while black colored wires are the negative charge carriers.

The three-hole female connector is the most common, with one circular hole on either side of the spade hole. One has auxiliary contact, and one has none. It provides the option to leave the internal speaker connected by inserting a plug by twisting it 180″.

Older devices generally use it, such as 16mm film projectors. Becker radio in Mercedes Benz, LED lamps and halogen lamps connect the bulbs to the power supply. There are also three- and four-pin versions of this loudspeaker connector used by Bang and Olsen.

  1. DIN VS Mini-DIN Connector

Both the DIN and Mini-DIN connectors are in line with the standards of the Deutsches Institut für Normung. However, the mini-DIN is smaller in size than the more considerable DIN. The pins in mini-DIN have an arrangement different from those of DIN, and as against the circular structure in DIN, mini-DIN pins have a horizontal format.

5. What is Mini-DIN Connector 

This mini-DIN is a type of DIN connector with a smaller diameter of 9.5 mm. They come in seven patterns, having several pins from three to nine.

There is a problem which the DIN connectors could not solve that the mini-DIN can solve. Because DIN connectors have a uniform key feature, it can allow for the wrong mating, eventually damaging its pins. The mini-DIN is not so. Each mini-DIN pattern is unique to allow for the same pattern mating, and any other way cannot fit into it.

6. Application of Mini-DIN Connectors

Mini-DIN connectors find their application in several areas centered on various types of consumer electronic devices. Some of which include

  1. S-Video connections
  2. Radio programming
  3. Gaming devices
  4. Keyboard ports
  5. Apple products
  6. Computers
  7. Custom sensing & controls

7. NON-Standard Mini DIN Connectors

These connectors are non-standard because the Deutsches Institut für Normung’s body does not approve of them. However, they are helpful in many ways. 

One way is that they provide extra conductors, and this feature helps them conserve space during installation. In the place of two standard DIN connectors, one non-standard connector will suffice. 

Several of these connectors mate effectively with standard DIN connectors, and others do not. They are also mini-DIN because they have a 9.5mm body diameter with standard mini-DIN. In all, they show themselves as very useful in application. 

8. Benefits of buying DIN Connectors

There are benefits associated with buying DIN connectors.

Purchasing DIN connectors allows you to use them in solenoid valves, pressure switches, and other devices.  

Also, suppose you wish to convert your device connectors to use Deutsche technology. In that case, you could simply purchase the pre-wire design connector and plug it into the available compatible connector. This cable converts to Deutsche technology significantly when the device’s connectors are unchangeable from the source.

9. How to Custom DIN Connector Step by Step?

We need to connect our electronics from day today, and hence the need for connectors. 

However, we should be extra careful when buying connectors. Some could either have a positive or negative effect.

Here are steps to follow when getting custom DIN connectors:

 Step 1: Finding a Professional Manufacturer

The first step is finding a professional manufacturer. We say this because of the fundamental reason for getting a product, and it’d it is because we want it to offer value to us. In our case, a manufacturer determines the quality of the connectors. If you seek a product with good quality and continuously render value, you should find a professional manufacturer. 

Step 2: Drawing Confirmation

After finding a professional manufacturer, you should then confirm their claims and promises.

Step 3: Sign the Contract

As they say, the faintest of ink is better than the best memory. Ensure that there is a written agreement for your request. It must be documented and signed by both parties involved. This contract will be something to fall to when one party deviates from the agreement.

Step 4: Sample Confirmation

Before you proceed to payment, it is not out of place to request samples of what you want. Ask for examples of their previous work. It enables you to be doubly such of their competence. 

Step 5: Delivery to Customer

After taking the steps above, ensure you know the details of the product and company. Where the goods are coming from, their delivery duration, shipping details, and other necessary information.

It will be of great relief if the company has its delivery service.

DIN Connectors  

In this subtopic, we will be looking at the 4 DIN connectors based on the number of pins they possess. 

4 Pin DIN Connector

5 Pin DIN Connector
5-pin DIN female connector

6 Pin DIN Connector

PS/2 Connector

PS/2 Connector

8 Pin DIN Connector

If you made it through to this part of the article, then you deserve some accolades. What length!  We will be wrapping up the paper here as we touch various wire connectors and wire terminals.

9. Electrical Connector– Wire Connectors & Wire Terminals

Speaker Wire Connectors

Speaker Connector

Speaker Connector

Waterproof Wire Connectors

Push in Wire Connectors

Wire Crimp Connectors

Wire crimp female connector.

Wire crimp female connector.

Twist on Wire Connectors

Twist-on Wire Connector

Twist-on Wire Connector

Quick Disconnect Wire Connectors

PCB Connectors Wire to Board

An Arduino Uno Board

An Arduino Uno Board

Waterproof Solder Wire Connectors

Heat Shrink Wire Connectors

Wire Butt Connectors

Blue butt connector

Blue butt connector

Low Voltage Wire Connectors

Marine Wire Connectors

Telephone Wire Connectors

Grey colored telephone wire connector

Grey-colored telephone wire connector.

Car Stereo Wire Connectors

Car Stereo Wire Connector

Car Stereo Wire Connector

Bullet Wire Connectors

Bullet wire connectors

Bullet wire connectors

Plastic Wire Connectors

Plastic wire connectors

Plastic wire connectors

Aluminum Wire Connectors

Aluminum terminal connector

Aluminum terminal connector

Push on Wire Connectors

Push type connector

Push type connector

Multiple Wire Connectors

Connector housing multi terminals with a single output

Connector housing multi terminals with a single output

B Wire Connectors

Battery Wire Connectors

Two battery wire connectors

Two battery wire connectors


Electrical connectors play a vital role in our lives today, even more in this age of innovation.

We have been able to speak extensively on the subject matter. We believe this article informed and enlightened you. You can reach out to us in the comment section below for assistance. Thank you for the time to follow through with the article.

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