How to hook up trailer wire harnesses?

What’s that? And how to hook up trailer wire harnesses? Trailer wiring diagrams can help.

You must attach trailer lights to your vehicle if you’re towing a trailer for public safety.

While every state in the U.S. has laws and regulations governing everything of the tailor lights, from size to weight restrictions, they all have one thing in common.

They must be wired for taillights, brake lights, and turn signals.

For that, you can connect the trailer to the electrical set-up of the vehicle.

However, you will find an unending variety of cables with sheathing of different colors and connectors.

What’s that? And how do hook up trailer wire harnesses?

Trailer wiring diagrams can help.

How do you attach the trailer lights?

Using T-One connectors is your best solution.  

T-connectors, also known as custom wire harnesses, are designed to work with a specific vehicle while providing simple output, with no additional wiring or splicing necessary.

4-way flat trailer harnesses are commonly used.

There are also 5-pin, 6-pin, and 7-pin trailer harnesses available in flat, round, and square. 

It has multiple plugs that ‘T’ into the vehicle’s taillight assembly so you can draw power directly from the taillights or the battery. 

Taillights, turn signals, and brake lights are essential for any trailer.

Markers and flashing lights are also necessary for some roads.

In addition, electricity is needed for some brakes, such as when you want to reverse and engage the electrical brakes or turn off the hydraulic brakes.

No matter your condition,  T-One connectors are the most convenient option because they have an OEM-style link that fits into the car’s current wire harness. 

Why is the color code for trailer wiring important

Every wire in your trailer wiring has a purpose; one for the tail light, one for the left brake light,  one for the right, and so on.

Following the color code is important because mismatched wires can confuse the road if the trailer lights aren’t working properly.

Connector StylePINFunction Color Description
1 GroundWhite Provides ground to all trailer connections
 Side Markers Tail and Runner Lights
3Left Brake, Light, and SignalYellowMulti-function signal for the Left Side Rear Tail Lamp
4 Pin 4Right Brake, Light, and SignalGreen Multi-function signal for the Right Side Rear Tail Lamp
5 Pin Connector5BrakeBlueControl Power of Hydraulic Brake
6 pin Connector6BatteryBlack or Red12 V power
7 pin Connector7Back-upPurpleBackup Lamps and hydraulic breaks

When do you apply the 4-pin trailer connector?

A 4-pin trailer connector is common in most trucks since it is the industry standard for trailer wire harnesses.

Thus, utility trailers use this plug to keep the vehicle safe while towing.

Four wires are connected: green to the right or brake, yellow to the left turn or brake, brown to the taillight, and white to the ground. 

When do you use the 5-Pin Plug?

You might not see a 5-pin plugin in many trailers since it is less common than the 4-pin.

However, this added pin has a major significance in many cases.

The fifth wire is usually blue and helps connect the reverse lights.

Since not all trailers have reverse lights, you will not always need the 5-pin plug.

For example, in boat trailers, 5-pin plug wiring is necessary. 

When do you apply the 6-Pin Plug?

Many companies use the gooseneck trailer to deal with heavy-weight objects.

These are usually placed on the truck’s bed. For such situations, the 6-pin plug system works perfectly.

It has the same color scheme as the others, with an added feature of black or red auxiliary wire.

Also, most wires in 6-pin are round. 

How about the 7-Pin system?

RVs and other big loads typically require the 7-pin system.

You can find many kits to help you with 7-pin wiring in the market.

Their color and function may vary; hence check what the colors mean before connecting the system.

Also, our favorite is the 7-pin spade and 4-pin flat connectors, which provide round and flat pull from one location.  

Trailer taillights

Trailer taillights


Trailer wiring is not so complicated if you have the right kind of equipment and skill with you.

You only need to look for the schematic and wire it up in an actual way.

If trailer wiring isn’t your thing, let Cloom handle it. 

How to Connect Radio Wire Harnesses?

Wire Stripper

When installing a new car stereo, the first step is to make sure how to connect radio wire harnesses with the adapter you intend to plug into your vehicle.

Making proper and durable wire connections is one of the greatest concerns you must deal with.

Thus, using one or more methods can ensure your connections remain intact and effective for years.

It will guarantee your new stereo works as it should.

How to Splice Two Wires

Most connections involve interweaving the ends of two wires together.

We can look at some aspects users should consider when undertaking this task.

And it is up to you to decide which method works best.

1. Soldering Two Wires

Soldering wires is the most effective way to ensure a solid connection.

You can do this by heat shrinking the tubing that insulates and protects the connection.

In most cases, the process will begin with you using a wire stripper to remove the insulation at the ends of the wires.

The following steps should help you navigate your way through the soldering process:

  • The first step is stripping about half an inch of the insulation material from both ends of the wire using strippers, which will expose the copper strands beneath.
  • Next, twist the wire strands together to prevent fraying and simplify your work.
  • Now place some heat shrink tubing over the end of one wire. Ensure you slide it far enough to prevent it from heating while soldering.
  • Proceed to twist the two wires together. This step isn’t to make a secure enough connection but to pave the way for the soldering process.
  • Next, heat the wires from beneath using a soldering iron. Allow the solder to flow through the wires from above.
  • This step ensures you get to the temperature, and the solder flows through the connection.
  • Then test your connection and slide the tubing on the open wires. 
  • Always apply only a little heat to prevent the wires from melting into the tubing.

2. Making use of Posi-Product Connectors

One of the best things about Posi-Product connectors is that they are easily attached and firmly placed.

Most users also prefer this method because of the integrity of the connectors and the simple process involved with the technique.

Below are the steps to connecting two wires using a Posi Connector:

  • First, strip off half an inch of the insulation material to expose the copper strands beneath.
  • Take your POsi tap made of three parts and unscrew the top smaller part.
  • Next, twist the wire strands and slide the Posi tap end over the naked wire strands.
  • Proceed to screw the remaining Posi tap body back into the top piece to crimp the wires. 
  • Once it’s secure, you can unscrew the bottom part of the Posi tap connector, exposing the piece that pierces your existing wire and the piece that holds the existing wire in place.
  • Next, slide the bottom part over the existing wire you want to tap into, then screw the remaining Posi connector with the newly attached wire you want to tap into to get a secure connection.

3. Crimping wires

Contrary to what some believe, crimping wires can help create a fairly solid connection.

However, it would help if you had crimp caps and a crimping tool to undertake the task.

Nonetheless, one of the potential drawbacks of this process is that the caps can shake loose if you don’t crimp them tightly enough.

Therefore, you should give them a good tug before installing your stereo.

To crimp two wires, follow the steps below:

  • First, expose the copper strands beneath by stripping off half an inch of the insulation material on each wire.
  • Take the two wires and twist the ends together. Ensure you don’t leave any loose copper strands.
  • Next, slide a crimp cap over the twisted wire stands. Ensure the cap covers all the wires.
  • Finally, squeeze down over the metal sleeve inside the crimp cap using a crimp tool to create a secure connection.
How to Connect Radio Wire Harnesses:Crimping Tool

Caption: Crimping Tool

Ways of Tapping into Existing Wires

Sometimes, you also need to tap into an existing wire.

And linking a new wire to the middle section of an existing one is what we call tapping the wire.

There are also several ways to safely and securely carry out the process.

Based on your preferences, you can opt to go with either one of the following:

1. How to Connect Radio Wire Harnesses: Using Posi-Tap connectors

In the same way, you would handle other wire connectors; the Posi-Tap connectors are straightforward for anyone trying to create a secure tap with another wire.

Follow the steps below to tap into a wire using Posi-tap connectors.

  • Begin by stripping off about half an inch of the insulation material to expose the copper strands beneath.
  • Use your Posi tap made of three parts by unscrewing the top smaller part.
  • Twist the wire strands together and slide the Posi tap end over the naked wire strands.
  • Next, screw the remaining Posi body part back into the top part to crimp the wires in place.
  • Proceed to unscrew the bottom part exposing the piece that pierces the existing wire and the piece that holds the existing wire in place.
  • Now slide the remaining part over the existing wire you want to tap into and screw the rest of the Posi tap connector along with the newly attached wire onto the wire you want to tap into, creating a secure connection.

2. How to Connect Radio Wire Harnesses: With a soldering process

If you are familiar with the various aspects of wire connecting, then you know that soldering is considered an old-version methodology of getting the job done by most.

Nonetheless, it is still relevant today and often gets the job done.

Follow the steps below to tap into a wire using the soldering process

  • The first step is to strip off about half an inch of the insulation to expose the copper strands below.
  • Next, twist the strands together to prevent fraying and make working with them easier.
  • Now using a pair of strippers, cut through the jacket material to expose the wire strands beneath. Be careful not to cut through any of the wires.
  • Next, pull off the wire jacket to expose about a quarter inch of the copper strands. 
  • Proceed to twist the wire strands of the new wire and existing wire together. 
  • Now heat the wires from beneath with a soldering iron and flow the solder through from above. This step will ensure you get to the right temperature and fill the connection with solder.
  • Finally, cover the portion of exposed wires with electrical tape to tap into your wiring harness.

3. How to Connect Radio Wire Harnesses: By a T-splice but no solder

T-splicing is also known as a mechanical splice.

It is one of the methods used to create a solid connection with the wires.

Sometimes, it can be the only way to ensure the job is done right.

It is one of the ideal processes to get good practice.

The steps below will assist you in tapping into a wire using a T splice and no solder.

  • First, strip off about three-quarters of an inch of the insulation material to expose the copper strands beneath.
  • Next, find the wire you want to tap into and slice open the jacket. Be careful not to cut through the wires. B bends the ire to start splitting the jacket to make it easier.
  • Now try to separate the wire strands from the jacket material. Ensure about an inch of the inner wire strand is exposed because you’ll need to cut off the remaining jacket material to make it easier.
  • Proceed opening up the middle of the naked wire strands, creating a space for a new wire to slide through.
  • Take the new wire and slide it into the existing exposed wire.
  • Follow by taking the wire end and dividing it into two halves to allow you to wrap both ends in different directions around the existing wire to create a tap without solder or any mechanical connections.
  • Cover the exposed wire with electrical tape to create a secure connection.


For those undertaking their first installation, connecting wires can be intimidating.

However, the process is not that hard when you think of it.

One thing you need to do to ensure a successful outcome is to take your time and exercise caution when making the connections.

Contact Cloom Tech for the best wire harness services if you encounter any problems or inquiries.

Flex Cable Assembly: How to Avoid Complications in Flex Cables?

Flex cable in plastic carriers

Manufacturers have had to find a way to reliably transmit data from the screen to the motherboard without taking up too much room in their quest to develop ever-thinner gadgets.

That’s why “flex cable assembly” is commonly used. Smartphones today are a prime example of this.

The flex cable’s structure and adaptability allow it to execute the job, but the trade-off has a higher potential to be damaged.

Let’s dig into the complications and how to avoid them using professional help.

What is flex cable?

The flex cable, or FFC (Flat Flexible Cable), is a crucial component of any electronic device, such as a mobile phone or tablet computer.

The flex cable’s primary function in mobile devices is to interconnect the motherboard to the LCD monitor, while its potential applications are far broader.

How to suspect a broken flex cable?

A broken or intermittent display is the most telltale sign that you have a compromised flexible cable.

Naturally, this kind of gadget is useless.

Therefore, any procedure requiring opening the device must be carried out cautiously.

Most common causes of damaged flex cable

 It takes only one broken flex cable to render an entire screen and gadget useless.

So, the flex cable needs careful handling, or it will fail to work.

  • Incorrect installation of flex cable in the apparatus.
  • Damage to the flex cable due to carelessness
  • Pinch or pressure damage to the wire
  • Failure to recognize the uselessness of one’s current methods
  • Making adhesive contact with the flex cable
FFC with computer component

Caption: FFC with computer component

How to fix flexible “flex” cables that are broken or torn?

When it comes to completing the repair, poor handling is directly linked to its completion.

Suppose you’ve effectively replaced the monitor and are ready to reattach it to the CPU via the flex connection, which is when the cable is most likely to be broken or otherwise damaged if you store it in the wrong spot and then close the device. 

If it is your first time making this repair, it’s a good idea to snap a photo of the device while it’s open so you have a reference for putting the cable back in its original spot once you’re done.


  • Solder paste remover 
  • Adjustable heat gun
  • Small scissors or surgical solder iron with miniature failure
  • Desoldering braid
  • Weld roller for electrical equipment
  • Masking or sticky tape
  • Razor blades with one edge or a surgery scalpel
  • Flat blades
  • Screwdriver


Step 1

First, using the scissors, cut the torn piece cleanly along the two straight edges using the scissors.


Cut or rip as straight as a feasible non-torn section to get equal halves if the cutting takes too much time while tougher.

Then, please read the steps below.

Step 2

Scrape the insulation off one side of the cable with the single-edged blade to reveal the bare wire for the connections, which should be about 3 to 4 mm long.

Take your time and avoid damaging or removing the copper if possible. Getting anywhere is a slow procedure.

Then, please return to the cable’s back half and scrape it similarly to reveal the copper there.

The lacquer insulator is not as easily scratched as it appears in images.

Step 3

The third step is applying a thin solder paste eraser and coating all exposed copper sides.

If it spills over, that’s okay.

Heat the dough with the soldering iron to stick it to the cable’s copper section.

Take care of both sides. You should use a solvent or cleanser to remove any lingering dough.

However, be careful not to destroy the plastic insulation after placing the solder on each tin contacts.

To reconnect the cable, apply this to the connections of the two “flex” portions.

Use a desoldering braid to remove excess solder or to split two tracks that have become accidentally connected.

Step 4

Use a mask or sticky tape to attach the two cord ends ‘flex securely’ layered one on top of the other, with the ends aligned as precisely as possible and overlapping by about 4 mm.

Hence, the contacts are entirely in touch (without an electrical circuit).

Put a dab of solder solution to the connection point between the two pieces.

To rejoin the cables, heat the top sheet (using the heat gun at the welding station) gradually, avoiding overheating the insulator of the cable “flex” while melting solder uniformly enough to pull it over all of the contacts.

Step 5

The next step is to apply pressure between the 2 layers of cables using a flat-bladed screwdriver or a stiff metal plate and then perform circular motions with the heat gun to strengthen the weld’s hold.

Wait until the solder has cooled before removing the screwdriver (or metal plate) for approximately 30 seconds.

Remove all tapmmeter connections from end to end to ensure that there are not any loose connections.

You should weld the connections again with heat if you find any faulty ones.


  • There is a risk of worsening a bad situation if you try to fix a malfunctioning electronic card, as these cards typically have integrated components vulnerable to static discharge.
  • Also, there is no way around learning how to precisely operate electrical solders on the card and typical parts to repair cables that ‘flex.’ Welded (and desoldering) equipment (iron tiny conventional welder and hot air cannon to heat and flowing factors) should also be available.


Flex cables are best when adjusting more wire in smaller spaces.

However, you have to handle them carefully and fix them in places with expert techniques.

After all, mishandling or incorrectly using a flex cable’s associated tools is the leading cause of this part becoming damaged.

If you want to handle it well, use only the provided professional tools and never touch it with metal instruments.

Here at Cloom, we offer flexible cable assemblies with careful handling so you get signals with minimal interference.

For getting services, contact us now.

BNC connector cable assembly: How to connect a BNC connector to a coax cable?

BNC connector cable assemblies

A large number of radio frequency connectors are working with coaxial cables.

These connectors help maintain the shielding of coaxial cables and have a fastening mechanism of different types.

BNC connectors are common among different types.

How does the BNC connector cable assembly benefit us?

What are BNC connectors?

BNC connectors are small RF (radio frequency) connectors connecting with coaxial cables.

These connectors first came into existence in military radio equipment in the year 1940, and since then, they have been widely used in radio systems.

These connectors help maintain the characteristic impedance of the cables at either 50 or 75 ohms.

You can use them for radio and video frequency connections with frequencies ranging up to 2 Giga Hertz and up to around 500 volts. 

Disassembled BNC connector

Disassembled BNC connector

BNC connector construction

The female connector in the BNC connector has two bayonet lugs, while the male part has a slot.

You can ensure complete mating by turning the connector a quarter from the coupling nut.

Both male and female connectors have an outer conductor with slots with plastic dielectric.

Due to this dielectric, the connector experiences signal losses at high frequencies.

For frequencies up to 4 GigaHertz, the outer slots radiate signals and thus make the connector usable.

However, for frequencies higher than this, like about 11 GigaHertz, these connectors are not stable.

You can find the interface-related specifications of the BNC connectors in MIL-STD-348.

BNC connector uses

These connectors were mainly planned for military applications.

Nowadays, along with the radio, you can use them with miniature or subminiature coaxial cables in television and various other RF equipment. 

Additionally, manufacturers used them in early computer works, such as the IBM Personal Computer network and ARCnet. 

So you can see BNC connectors on thin 10BASE2 Ethernet cables and network cards.

Further, you can use them on commercial video devices for mixed video. In such conditions, use consumer electronics with RCA jacks and commercial video equipment with BNC jacks only with the help of an adapter. 

You may also notice BNC connectors in studios where recording equipment uses BNC connections to synchronize various components. 

In BNC connections, the male part fits the cable while the female part attaches to a section of the equipment for signal connections like

  • Radio antennas
  • Nuclear instrumentation
  • Test equipment
  • Analog and serial digital interface video signals
  • Aerospace electronics
The coaxial cable on panel telecommunications

The coaxial cable on panel telecommunications

BNC connector types, formats, and variants

Apart from these types, 50 ohms and 75 ohms, there is a variation of BNC connectors, i.e., RP-BNC or BNC Connectors with Reverse Polarity.

As the name indicates, in this connector, the polarity of the BNC connector reverses.

Here, the female part you usually see in the jack is in the plug, and the male is in the jack.

The reverse polarity connector does not connect with the common interface connector.

An example of this reverse polarity BNC variant is the SHV (Safe High Voltage) connector.

In addition, some miniature versions of these connectors are Mini BNC, and another is high-density BNC.

These connectors retain the original characteristics but have reduced footprints with high pack density on their circuit boards.

Such connectors have 75 ohms impedance, so you can use them with High-Density video applications.

Also, there are some straight and right-angled variants of BNC connectors.

Of these, the straight ones are more common.

You can use the right-angled connectors, where a cable separates with the plug at right angles.

Right-angled connectors are suitable for various applications like this so that the cable detaches from the connector in a tidy manner.

There is a drawback with right-angled connectors, i.e., these connectors lead to higher signal losses than straight ones.

For many applications, signal loss is insignificant for operational limit frequencies, and the difference becomes higher.

There are several BNC connector variants based on the different female sockets.

In a basic BNC connector, the socket has a panel mounting assembly having a solo connection for the coax cable.

For Earth, you can use the panel and do it with the help of a single nut. Some other connectors have bolts and four nuts to allow them to fix the panel.

However, this arrangement is suitable only for low-frequency applications and not for radio-frequency applications where you must match impedance.

For such applications, bulkhead mounting connectors are available for different cable dimensions.

You may also find adapters and attenuators beside the plugs and sockets.


The best part of BNC connectors is that all their different versions can manage without any doubt.

The 50-ohm and 75-ohm versions are compatible with the 2007 IEC 60169-8 and can mate with each other. 

When the frequencies are very low, i.e., below 10 MegHertz, there is some impedance mismatch between a 50-ohms cable/connector and a 75-ohms connector bit with insignificant effects.

There were 50 ohms versions of BNC connectors that you could use with cables of any impedance.

Thus, frequency mismatch becomes significant and may lead to reflections in signals.


Consumers may be more familiar with SMA connectors because television cable connections in homes mainly use them.

The difference is that SMA connectors are threaded, and BNC connectors are not.

What is the BNC connector cable assembly?

In the BNC connectors, the male part attaches to the ends of the coaxial cables.

It has a metal tube or ring-like structure that surrounds a pin.

This pin connects to the coaxial cable and acts as a transmission between the cable and the device connected to the cable.

BNC connector cable assembly method

The BNC connector cable assembly method has four.

Twist on 

As the name suggests, these connector types twist onto the cable.

So it is easy to use and does not need special tools.

You may need a wire stripper only to remove the cable’s insulation.

However, some people do not find twist-on connectors as reliable and secure.


These crimp-on connectors have two styles: two pieces and three pieces.

Between these two, two-piece connectors are more common.

And this type of assembly requires a particular type of crimping tool for proper crimping.

Follow the below procedure for making a two-piece crimp-type assembly:

  • First, slide the ferrule (a hollow tube-like portion of the connector) over the cable. Slide it a few feet so that it gets out of the way.
  • Second, cut the cable end neatly and cleanly.
  • Third, strip the cable with the help of a stripping tool. Make sure you strip the outer jacket about ½ inch back of the cable, strip the braided sheath about ¼ inch, and then strip the insulation about 3/16 inch from the cable end.
  • Now, insert the solid central conductor of the cable into the connector’s center pin. Try to slide the center pin downwards to cover the inner insulation.
  • Take a crimping tool and crimp the center pin.
  • Now, slide the body of the connector on the center pin and the insulation under the braided shield. Once you start pushing, you will hear a clicking sound.
  • Next, move the ferrule forward to touch the connector’s body. Finally, crimp it also with the crimping tool.

For the  three-piece crimp-type assembly:

  • There is a center pin that you have to crimp to the central conductor of the cable. 
  • After that, you can push this crimped pin into the correct location of an inner ferrule which separates the internal insulation and cable braid. 
  • Once pushed, you can crimp the outer ferrule to the braid and external insulation to fix the cable firmly to the connector. 

Cable assembling with these connectors can take longer than the others, but finally, you will get a secure connection that will not become loose over time.

Generally speaking, these connectors are suitable for large production runs.

However, you cannot use them for rework once crimped.


Attaching an F compression connector to the coaxial cable and then fixing it to the BNC connector.

In this method, the connector has a center pin known as a solder pin.

You can expand this compression gland to hold the sheath or braid of the cable.

You can use this type of connector with limited cable sizes.

Thus, this method and connector are suitable for small quantities of production. 

Most people prefer the second method as it does not require estimating the coax cable length as the core is visible. So there are lesser chances of error.  


 Like the F-compression connector, the F-connector crimps onto the cable first, and then you can screw it to the BNC connector.

Three main components of a BNC connector 

Caption: Three main components of a BNC connector 


BNC connectors have become standard RF connectors as they are easy to use, durable, cost-effective, and easy to assemble.

However, the crucial point is knowing which connector type to pick among many variants that suit your Coaxial Cable Assembly.

If you need any help, contact Cloom.

Cable assembly types: How these cables differ from each other

PCB Microwave cable assembly

With four key factors affecting cable assembly performance—mechanical, electrical, environmental, and application-specific—manufacturers must ensure that cable assemblies can withstand harsh conditions and operate reliably over the system’s life.

Cable assemblies with durable, compact, and flexible designs help that, whether used in systems operating on land, subsurface, sea, or space.

However, as applications vary, so do the design and cable assembly types. Today, we’ll take a closer look at some of them.

What is a Cable Assembly?

A cable assembly is designed to consolidate the functionality of multiple cables into a single, more manageable unit, making it simpler to set up, move, and repair.

Many wires and cables are color-coded or labeled for quick identification.

The wires in certain cable assemblies are exposed, whereas those in others are completely covered.

A cable assembly typically has a single component connecting each end and plugging into an outlet.

While the final assembly may be concealed, it is usually constructed so that the individual components can be seen for at least a few inches before joining the part plugging into the power source.

Cable assemblies simplify designing, buying, testing, and installing cables.

They cut costs and streamline supply networks.

Optional electronic components and features like bend reliefs and sealing caps can make them active while providing flexibility and lightweight benefits.

Common Application of Cable Assemblies in Specific Industry

Transmission of either information or electricity is the usual function of an assembly.

Usually, you can see them in the following industries.

Automotive Cable Harnesses

Most manufacturers provide a variety of automotive sectors program requirements, such as automation grade cables, assessment submissions, and a lengthy development cycle.

It is common practice for manufacturers of custom wire harnesses to demand either an SAE-approved or special dust and waterproof caps and connectors.

Hence, you will use silicone seals, gaskets, and bespoke over-molds and grommets in automotive cables.

Medical Wire Assemblies

Multiple types of cables carry electricity and high-definition video between medical devices.

Sterilization, bio-compatibility, and ISO 13485 certifications are all prerequisites for many medical cables.

Many wire-sleeve and over-mold methods exist because of their resistance to ethylene oxide, autoclave sterilization, and isopropyl alcohol.

MilSpec Cables

Mil-spec standard 38999 is a comprehensive standard for electrical harnesses for military applications.

Moreover, manufacturers offer expert designs for these cables, which often have mil-hardened parts.

You need intricate connector systems and specialized materials for the wire jackets to put together several of these cables.

Connector systems that adhere to Mil-spec 38999 typically call for specialized tools.

For example, insert/extract tooling, back shell torque wrenches, HIPOT test equipment, crimpers, and multimeters to achieve the program’s goals.

Military-grade cable assemblies are typically used for aerospace, tactical, and marine applications. 

Wire processing for connecting machine

Caption: Wire processing for connecting machine

7 Types of Cable Assemblies You May Need

The various cable assembly types may be grouped by application, the number of wires (core), desired shape, and material, including complex military, multi-conductor, round coaxial/RF, wire and cable harnesses, flat ribbon, custom electro-mechanical, and more.

Data & Video Cables- D-Sub, USB, HMDI, DisplayPort

Multiple variations within each family are just some of the industry standard cable formats manufacturers support.

This applies to the male and female varieties, the full-sized and miniaturized forms, the “A,” “B,” and “C” varieties of the USB connector, RJ45, RJ11, and other Ethernet cable and phone jack types.

Power Cables

Power cables can employ various cable technologies for general usage and normally run at voltages lower than 30VDC or 120VAC.

You might use PVC coatings, tinned copper wires, thermoplastic over-molds, and connectors in manufacturing these cables.

For several common connector types, such as DC power barrels and AC power plugs like NEMA 5-15P and 5-15/20, in-house tooling is available.

Low Voltage Hook-Up Wire Harnesses

A wide range of wire harness constructions meet UL and industry standards and need 300VDC or less.

Companies can offer solutions for single-wire and multi-wire cross-sections with 1 to 100 conductors.

You can find these wire harnesses inside consumer devices, mechanical systems, medical equipment, and most of our daily tech.

RF/EMI Cable Assemblies

The world is already very noisy, and each of your cables undoubtedly contributes to that.

If there is interference in the radio spectrum, we call it RFI or radio frequency interference.

There are EMI or electromagnetic interferences as well.

However, if the disturbance persists, the circuit’s performance may suffer or stop working altogether.

Any data path may suffer consequences, from a rise in failure rate to complete data loss.

Depending on the context, you may wish to use these signals.

Hence, you should consult with the cable assembly person to determine the optimal course of action.

Molded Cable Assemblies

You have likely encountered molded cable assemblies outside of your professional life.

In most cases, manufacturers might prefabricate the HDMI cables in a mold.

A molded cable assembly might be the best option if your application demands increased durability and a cleaner look.

You can also use plastic or metal to create shells; both types, protected and uncovered, have their uses.

Assembled Coaxial Round

Coaxial cables are special electrical wires in which the inner conductor is encased in an insulating tube, and the outer conductor is encased in a shielding tube.

A jacket is typically around the outside of a coaxial wire to provide insulation.

The word “coaxial” refers to the core conductor and the external shield lying along the same geometric axis.

Coax cables have several uses in vehicles, airplanes, medical devices, and radios.

Flat Ribbon Cable Assemblies

Ribbon cables that are flat and sleek are awesome.

The cables are neatly arranged in a flat ribbon rather than packed together within a sheath.

Ribbon cables, which you have probably seen in old computers, are flat cable assemblies that are just as functional as round cables.

However, they can be more useful in some situations due to their smaller footprint.

Ribbon cables make viewing and classifying each wire easy and can have color-coding to indicate their function.

Moreover, their primary use is bulk termination at IDC connectors with a sharp forked row of contacts.

In some cases, ribbon cable assemblies are superior to round cable assemblies when the cable’s width is a critical design factor.

Bare wire stranded

Caption: Bare wire stranded

Cable Assembly Design Considerations

You need to follow some key considerations before designing the system.

  • Identify the requirements and application area so that you design the protection accordingly.
  • Determine the correct length and size of the conductor
  • Also, determine the proper conductor and insulation material for your wires
  • See that the cables are flexible enough to endure the abrasions
  • Decide the stranding pattern of the cable so that it offers good flexibility
  • Moreover, determine the correct shielding and plating types of the conductors so that they work in humid environments
  • In the end, use the correct connector types and termination methods.
Power connector

Caption: Power connector


Cable assemblies play a significant role in the manufacture of any system.

Also, there are many types for each industry type.

Thus, designing these harnesses requires extra care and consideration to work perfectly.

Here at Cloom, we offer wiring harness and cable assembly solutions, so you don’t have to worry about perfection.

Booster Cable Assembly: How to Use Them Safely and Successfully

Jumper cables with clamps

Your vehicle battery can die for several reasons, like low temperature.

You must start your car to drive it to the mechanic’s shop.

You may need a booster cable assembly to jump-start the battery.

What is a booster cable?

You can call a booster cable a jump lead or a jumper cable. 

This cable comprises a pair of insulated wires with alligator clips at both ends so it can interconnect the non-functioning equipment or vehicle to some auxiliary source.

The auxiliary can be another vehicle, equipment with the same voltage system, or another battery.

The alligator chips in the wires have proper insulation to avoid short circuits.

These clips are either made of copper or steel, and these chips have polarity markings in black (-) and red (+) colors.

You will find one black and one red cable in a booster assembly.

The colors help you to know where to attach the cables. In an electrical system, electric current flows from a negative terminal to a positive terminal through some wires to power something.

In this case, they will power the car’s starter.

Thus, you must connect the correct terminals to make your jumper cable work properly.

Always connect the red cable with the positive terminal and the black cable with the negative terminal. 

Remember not to touch the jumper cable to anything except the target.

Battery jumper cables

Battery jumper cables

Booster cable assembly considerations

When choosing a booster cable to work with your car, consider the following features.

Jumper cable gauge

Generally, jumper cables range from gauge 1 to gauge 12. According to this scale, Gauge 1 is a heavy-duty option, while the last one, i.e., gauge 12, is a light-duty option. 

As you know, thick cables carry more current; you can jump-start a battery faster with a thicker cable.

According to the industry recommendations, you must use a 4-gauge jumper cable for a dead battery.

However, to jump-start a drained battery in normal temperatures, you can use a 10-gauge cable.

Of course, most of the time, we choose the gauge according to vehicle types.

For cars, gauge 6 is enough; for bikes, you can do it with a gauge-10 wire as bikes do not need more power, and a smaller gauge is enough.

If you have a full-size or diesel truck, it is better to take the gauge-4 wire.

Apart from this, if you are handling something heavier than a truck with a couple of batteries, you can use gauge-1 or gauge-2.


If two cars face each other, a 10 feet long cable is enough, but that is not always possible.

So always go to longer lengths for higher flexibility. Remember, as the cable length increases, the gauge decreases as less charge flows through the longer lengths.


When you use a jumper cable in cold climatic conditions, you need an adequately insulated set of jumper cables; otherwise, the cables will break when you take them out.

In addition, insulation helps in preventing general wear and tear. If the cable gets damaged, it results in an arc formation, which can shock you or your car.

Clip material

The auxiliary clips on the jumper cable act as a clamp to ensure a solid connection to the battery. 

In the copper-plated clamps, the base metal is steel which is not a good conductor of electricity.

In addition, these clamps start wearing off over time, making loose connections.

On the other hand, even if the copper clamps scratch, they will continue working efficiently. 


Starting a smaller car needs less amperage than starting a large truck or an SUV vehicle.

Generally speaking, 200 amperes is enough to provide the necessary power.

However, the industry recommends using not less than 400 amperes of cables.

You may need jumper cables with more than 600 amps for some very heavy vehicles.


Always pick a jumper cable that covers a warranty and is UL certified. With such safety certificates, the company is there to help if anything goes wrong.

High-quality jumper cables

High-quality jumper cables

Safety tips for jumping start a car.

  • Read your car’s manual and look for specific car batteries or jump-start instructions. Some manufacturers suggest not to jump-start your car, while others give particular instructions to jump-start the car.
  • Look for the car battery. Most of the time, it is in the front portion, under the hood. However, in some car models, you may also find the battery in the trunk. If the battery’s location is in the trunk, find its designated terminals for use. 
  • Take note of the battery’s positive and negative terminals and ensure that you attach the jumper cables to the correct terminals to avoid accidents.
  • For the safer side, remove the keys from the car’s ignition (both cars if using the car for a jump start).
  • Make sure that nothing flammable is available near the battery. There are chances of sparks, fires, and explosions during jump start. The car batteries and portable jump devices have high voltages.
Jump start a car

Jumpstart a car

How To Jump Start a Car

There are two ways of jump-starting a dead battery: a portable jump battery or another vehicle.

Use jumper cables with another car.

  • Firstly, find out the location of the battery. Mostly, the battery is with the engine.
  • Secondly, park both cars close enough but without touching each other from anywhere; otherwise, the current will flow through different parts along with jumper cables.
  • Power off the engine of both cars. 
  • Note the battery’s positive (+) and negative (-) terminals and attach the jumper cable to the proper terminals. 
  • First, connect one side of the red jumper cable to the non-working battery’s positive terminal.
  • Secondly, connect the other end of the red cable to the positive terminal of the live car battery.
  • Third, attach one end of the back jumper cable to the negative terminal of the working car’s battery.
  • Finally, connect another end of the black cable to a piece of stationery metal on the car with the dead battery.
  • Remember not to join this terminal to the negative terminal of the non-working car’s battery.
  • Why? Some people consider it okay, but it increases the chances of fire and explosion if the jump start fails.
  • You can connect that part to the engine bolt, car’s chassis, alternator bracket, or a grounding terminal. 
  • When you finish all the connections, charging begins, and your vehicle may either start immediately or take some time.
  • Give some time for the engine to work and let current flow from the working battery to the dead battery.
  • After some time, try to start the car. Insert the key and turn it to start. Hold the key only for a few seconds and not more than that.
  • You may need to do this several times.
  • If your jump-start does work well, the engine will start. Once you drive the car for some time, it will automatically recharge the battery.
  • If you hear the engine cranking on turning the key, there may be another issue, and you may need to see the mechanic.
  • It would help to disconnect the jumper cables when your dead battery starts working. Ensure not to touch the cables to anything before you make all disconnections; otherwise, the current can go to some unwanted locations.
  • First, detach the black cable from the car’s chassis/bolt/terminal.
  • Second, detach another end of the black jumper cable from the negative terminal of the working car’s battery.
  • Third, detach the end of the red jumper cable from the working car’s battery’s positive terminal.
  • Finally, disconnecting its other end from the car’s battery’s positive terminal requires a jump start.
Jump-start a car with another car

Jump-start a car with another car

Use a portable jump starter.

  • You can also use portable jump starters/jump boxes or battery packs to jump-start your car if another car is unavailable.
  • As it is portable, you can keep it in the trunk, glove box, or anywhere else. However, most jump starters cannot bear very high summer temperatures.
  • So, read the instructions before you carry one into your car.
  • Switch off the starter. Also, ensure that all auxiliary features of your dead vehicle are off.
  • The portable jump devices have two clamps attached permanently to the tool.
  • These include one positive red clamp and another negative black clamp.
  • Try to keep them away to avoid any sparking.
  • Next, connect the red jumper cable clamp to the dead battery’s positive terminal and the black clamp to the ground or car’s chassis.
  • When you have made proper connections, switch on the power of the jump starter. Try to start the vehicle by turning the key to start.
  • Hold for a few seconds. If the car does not start, allow the battery to cool for a few seconds before you make another attempt.
  • Now try again. If your jump-start is working, your engine must start, let it run for a few seconds, and it will charge the battery automatically.
  • Now, disconnect the jump starter cables.
  • First, disconnect the negative black cable from the car and remove the red cable from the car’s battery terminal. 
  • If your engine does not turn over even after trying a couple of times, you may have another problem at hand; let an experienced mechanic take a look at your car and find the real reason. 
Jump start a car with portable jump starters

Jump start a car with portable jump starters

Choose jumper cables by vehicle type.

It doesn’t matter if you have enough knowledge about jumper cables.

The following can still help you get one.

Booster Cable Assembly: Compact

You can start a compact car with a 6-gauge jumper cable.

So, if you have a Kia forte or Mazda 3, you will need a 10 feet gauge-6 cable that can give 200 amps of current.

However, we suggest you still use a gauge-4 cable 20 feet long.

Also, look for the cable that can provide 400 amps for safe and best results.

Booster Cable Assembly: Sports cars

For fast sports cars, a 4-gauge 10 feet cable won’t do the work.

You will at least need a 2-gauge 20-foot-long jumper cable.

Although 400 amps are okay for sports cars, it would be good to choose 600 amps.

Also, pick the jumper cables having clamps of solid copper for a safe and secure connection. 

Booster Cable Assembly: Intermediate

For intermediate cars like Toyota Camry or Kia K5, you need a 6-gauge 10-foot jumper cable that provides 200 amps.

However, to ensure uninterrupted performance, you must go for a gauge 4 20 feet jumper cable supplying 400 amps.

Booster Cable Assembly: Full-size

For full-size sedans, you need a minimum of gauge-6 10 feet jumper cable, which can supply 200 amps of power.

For maximum performance, choose a jumper cable that is 4 gauge 20 feet long.

It will be much better if the cable can provide 800 amps of power.

Booster Cable Assembly: SUV/minivan:

For SUVs like Honda Passport, you need extra power to jump start.

Choose a 4-gauge, 10 feet-long jumper cable supplying 400 amps of power.

You can also take a 2-gauge, 20-feet long jumper cable with 800 amps of power for better results.


If you own a full-size van like Chevy Express, you need a 4-gauge, 10 feet-long jumper cable with 400-amp power to get your ride back on the road.

Further, a 2-gauge, 20-feet long jumper cable supplying 800 amps of power is more reliable, and such cables do not create any problems while jump-starting large vehicles of this size.

Battery Jumper Cable Assembly Product Details

Battery Jumper Cable Assembly Product Details


People usually do not keep their jump starters charged; however, it is essential.

Otherwise, you will need another car to bring your dead battery back to life.

Nevertheless, you will surely need a pair of jumper cables.

Cloom suggests you get 4–6 gauge cables 20 feet or 6 meters long.

Aircraft Wire Harness: How the Air Industry Evolved with Time

Wire harness in aircraft

Electrical harnesses are a staple in modern electronics and the backbone of the auto industry.

Without it, the systems inside these machines wouldn’t be automatic.

However, technical progress has allowed the use of adaptable and robust wire harnesses useful in other complex industries, like the aerospace or aviation industry.

Let’s see how the aircraft wire harness evolved during the period and how they are used now.

Innovations in Aircraft Technology 

Flying in today’s high-tech world may seem like a mundane experience, something that most of us experienced before.

However, airplane technology has progressed a lot thanks to its rich history.

When planes first took to the skies, aerodynamics was the key to getting from point A to point B.

Thermal airships, or hot air balloons, were the first aircraft to carry humans.

However, aerodynamics and motor technology advancements in the early 20th century made powered-controlled flights increasingly common.

Similar to modern airplanes, these early models were developed by 1909.

Aerospace engineering has advanced through the years, with more potent aircraft engines and new improvements in aircraft wiring harnesses.

Aircraft and the aviation sector, as it exists now, would not exist without the technological breakthroughs it has experienced.

At the same time, an aircraft wire harness serves the same primary function as any other wiring system and the innovations it has brought to the aerospace industry.

Caption: Hydraulic lines inside the aviation system

Why Do Aircraft Have Wiring Harnesses?

There was no such thing as a wiring harness in the early days of airplane development since electrical systems did not exist.

They had to move the flying control surfaces using only structural parts, ropes, and pulleys.

Metal cables soon replaced the ropes; even today, many planes don’t “fly by wire,” instead relying on cables and pulleys.

Eventually, an airplane designer decided to wire in a light and put in a switch, battery, and bulb.

He connected these parts with cables, creating the airplane’s first electrical lighting system.

Since this system only required a small number of wires, harness manufacturers put them individually in safe locations.

Subsequently, other architects came along and incorporated even more electrical infrastructures.

Aircraft mechanics eventually realized that they were installing cables one at a time despite groups of wires flowing from one part to another.

Moreover, they needed more wires for each additional device.

The duration of this setup process was lengthy.

Mechanics began grouping and routing cables together in bundles to increase productivity.

The aviation industry took notice and deemed this a worthwhile development.

After conceptualizing the wire bundles as a whole, they assembled them there.

With this, they created the first wire harness.

Aircraft wire harnesses serve this purpose.

Shot wire tubes inside the wall

Caption: Shot wire tubes inside the wall

The Functionality of an Aircraft Wiring Harness

Similar to how a car’s harness directs electrical impulses, a plane’s wiring harness does the same for the complete aircraft.

The engine, landing gear, wings, and fuselage are only some of the functions it regulates.

Wire harnesses typically have a great deal going on inside of them.

Miles of cables, wires, and thousands of individual parts make up an airplane wiring harness.

In addition, they all have to function together to keep the plane flying smoothly.

Today’s aircraft manufacturers must also keep up with rapidly developing technologies and upgraded aircraft wiring connections to support cutting-edge additions.

In addition to improving efficiency in production and manufacturing, an aircraft wire harness also makes it easier for mechanics to identify and repair planes experiencing technical difficulties.

Wire harnesses eliminate the need to install the electronic systems of a humongous plane separately.

When problems arise and maintenance is required, mechanics must identify the affected component to fix it.

Three Categories of Parts in an Aircraft Wiring Harness

The aircraft you will put it in is a significant factor in determining the specific elements and components of the wiring harness when designing a plane that meets military specifications; there are many things that you have to take into account.

These are the three types of airplane components.

Standard Components

In a plane’s electrical system, the military will often have the final say over the components known as MIL-SPEC (military standard).

The letters M or MS appended to the beginning of the serial number designate them as a military issue.

Some are prefixed with the letters NAS to show that they conform to the National Aerospace Standard.

A few standard component prefixes exist, but these two are the most prevalent in a military plane’s wiring harness.

On the other hand, the military and many other aerospace sectors.

Nonetheless, the government must certify specific manufacturers before you can consider them as authorized suppliers.

Non-Standard Components

Non-standard components are frequently variants of commercially available components that meet a slightly different military standard.

Original equipment manufacturers can dictate the criteria for non-standard components (OEM).

Original Equipment Manufacturers also have the option to permit which of their suppliers to produce non-standard components.

However, the cost of a non-standard element for an airplane harness tends to be higher since so few exist.

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf Components (COTS)

Manufacturers mass-produce COTS components in response to market research and consumer demand.

The producer can improve the design of the components without permission from the government or the defense.

A manufacturer can create their parts and assign them unique part numbers.

As with the other two components, you can purchase COTS options from vendors at a reduced cost.

However, manufacturers have exclusive power over the distribution of COTS components, allowing them to set prices and determine market share.

Furthermore, they have the freedom to alter or amend any requirements.

However, it might cause a problem as it becomes essential to source new components for a plane’s wiring harness due to a depleted supply.

Aircraft Wiring and Connection

Aircraft wire harnesses have wiring that is miles long.

Therefore, you need to plan and structure them precisely to prevent problems during and after construction.

Thus, the first step in any design process is the creation of a schematic in CAD software. It serves as a guide for subsequent construction.

Insulating materials used to be a one-size-fits-all affair, but nowadays, many options are available to meet various needs.

The signal you send, and the system’s electricity dictate which wires are used. Wire insulation also shifts with these variables.

It would also help to label the wires so that assembly and repairs don’t mix them up.

However, when picking a connector, you should remember these three things.

The number of connections that the connector can accept should come first.

The second factor is the thickness of each wire, and the last is the type of wire to enter the aircraft connector.


The aircraft wire harness is based on different wires and connectors.

Moreover, other standards, non-standard, and COTS parts make the harness complete and functioning.

While choosing the elements, you need to look into your requirements.

Then you will get to design the schematic using CAD software.

At Cloom, we offer wiring harnesses and cable assemblies to make your connection safe and reliable.

How To Wire A Harness: An Ultimate Guide on Automotive Harness Wiring

How To Wire A Harness

How To Wire A Harness?

When you get a factory harness for your vehicle, you will get all the wiring essential for all the standard electrical components such as headlights, horns, windshield wipers, etc.

However, you sometimes want to add more electrical components to your vehicles, such as racing electronics or high-end audio.

If you want your systems to work at their full potential, you need to learn a few tips related to making the wiring of a harness easier and more effective.

Round up the right tools

The wiring job becomes much more manageable if you pick the right tools. 

First of all, take good quality wire strippers. Mostly, wire strippers have several holes that can fit different wire gauges.

The wire strippers help strip the insulation off the wires properly without damaging the conductors inside. 

The second tool that you may require is a wire crimper. You can install solderless connectors with a wire crimper.

If you choose a quality crimper, it will have two-three sections on its nose to fit into various lug sizes.

Additionally, there are crimpers with wire cutting and wire stripping sections. 

Some connectors are difficult to crimp; thus, you need a soldering iron to splice and secure such oversized connectors.

Several solder types are designed specifically for electronic products and electric wiring.

They have active resin core flux, which cleans the wires on heating.

As a result, it removes any extra oxidation or corrosion on the wires.

When cleaned, you can solder the wires with lesser heat, making the connections strong and having less electrical resistance. 

Other than these basic tools, you should also have these items in your electrical toolbox:

  • A wire brush so that you can remove grease, oil, or heavy corrosion before soldering.
  • A voltmeter and an ohmmeter measure the circuits’ voltage and resistance levels.
  • A test light with which you can check the power in the circuit.
  • Shrink tubing materials for insulating connections from outer elements. You can insert this tube over the connector or the solder joint, which shrinks permanently on heating. 
soldering iron

soldering iron

Gauge your wiring needs

While choosing wires for electrical systems, you must consider three essential factors.

Size: You measure the wire size with its gauge. As the gauge becomes heavier, the wire becomes smaller, and vice versa.

Now, how will you decide on the wire gauge? You can choose it based on the current drawn in the accessory and the length of the wire between the power source and the accessory.

If the current in the accessory is high, you must take heavier gauge wires.

Caption: Wire Gauge to Wire Diameter Comparison Chart

However, when the wire is of longer lengths, you may face the issue of voltage drop.

But you can offset this drop by increasing its size. As a thumb rule, you should try to get less than a .5% of voltage drop to ensure the highest performance.

Wire materials: Generally, the wires are made from aluminum or copper. If you choose wires for automotive applications, you must take copper wire for higher flexibility and conductivity. 

Wire color: It becomes essential when you have to find out about any faulty wire.

Thus, it is always better to color-code all the wires based on the accessory.

Such marking will help you identify wires during installation and troubleshooting. 

Make the connection

You can take either of the two connectors: soldered and solderless. 

You will need soldered connectors for oversized wiring or splicing the wires together. 

On the other hand, all other wires use solderless or crimp connectors. Solderless connectors are very easy to use and give a powerful connection.

These connectors come with color-coded insulators so that you can know which one to use for which gauge wire.

You can get various configurations in solderless connectors as follows:

  • Butt connectors: These cylindrical connectors are ideal for joining the ends of two wires together. You can insert each wire end into each end of the connector. After inserting, crimp the connection to secure it tightly.
  • Spade connectors: You must use this type of connector for all those components requiring removal or servicing quite often. Here, you connect the male connector at one end of the wire and the female at another. This male and female connector will fit into each other to form the connection. When you want any repairs, you need to pull the wires apart.
  • Ring connectors: You can fix the wires to screw-type terminals with these connectors and secure them with a terminal screw.

Whether you are using soldered or solderless connectors, it is always advisable to use heat shrink tubing to make the connection more secure and safe.

Heat shrink tubing is easy to install and protects against short circuits and other outside components.

Insulated female electrical wire crimps terminal connector.

Insulated female electrical wire crimps terminal connector.

Choose the correct wiring harness components.

When wiring a harness, you should take some overload protection to save your expensive electronics from getting damaged.

There are three main types.

How To Wire A Harness: Fuses

You can connect a fuse to a circuit.

Whenever more power is in a circuit than required, the fuse will blow, thus protecting the circuit from shorts. The fuses come in amperage ratings; the most common ratings are 3,4,5,6,7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, 25, and 30 amperes.

It is advisable to use a fuse slightly higher than the rating of the accessory.

For example, if an electric fan has a rating of 19.5 amps, use a fuse of 25 amps.

How To Wire A Harness: Fusible links

Fusible links are another way of protecting the circuits.

These alloy-made wires have a melting point lower than regular copper wires.

You can splice the link in line with the accessory’s power line.

When there is electrical overloading, this link will melt and thus prevent the electrical power from reaching the accessory.

How To Wire A Harness: Circuit Breakers

The circuit breakers switch off the power to the electronic accessory whenever there is an electrical overload.

Once you restore the correct power, you can reset the circuit breaker.

There are circuit breakers with manual as well as automatic reset options.

They all come in different amperage ratings as fuses.

How To Wire A Harness: Relays

You can also use relays in the wiring of the electrical accessory if they draw higher currents than standard power rates.

As most switches have designs to work with limited currents, you need relays whenever you buy a new electrical accessory from the market.

Relays become more critical when using electrical accessories with high amperes, such as fuel pumps, electric fans, HID headlights, etc.

These accessories activate with an electrical coil and get controlled by a switch.

No power flows to the accessory if the relay is in a close position.

When you turn on the accessory switch, the relay opens and sends power to the concerned accessory.

Apart from these, several other components make your wiring easier, such as 

  • switch panels, 
  • push-button, 
  • toggle, 
  • remote-mount switches, 
  • multi-circuit main and auxiliary fuse blocks, 
  • and wiring harnesses.
How a relay works

How a relay works

Map out a plan

It would help if you always mapped out a plan before you started your wiring project. 

First, lay out the wiring and harnesses to understand the basic wiring scheme and whether you have enough wires to complete the task.

Put the fuse box in an easy-to-reach location, such as in the glove compartment or the center console. 

Now, put all the required relays, circuit breakers, fuses, and fusible links at the wiring connections between your electrical accessory and the power source. 

See if the wiring is labeled.

If not, label all the wires and harnesses according to the name of the electrical components they are routing to.

If any wire goes through the firewall, use a grommet so that sheet metal does not cut the wires.

Secure the connectors only when the wiring has been done through the firewall.

Pick a spot near or on the firewall for the cable harness’s ground point and another point for the chassis ground on the vehicle’s negative side.

With this, you get one path to the negative side of the vehicle and provide a more effective ground point.

Always use a gauge wire of 10 or more to connect the chassis ground to the common ground. 

Keep calm, stay organized, and take sufficient time to understand and manage things to complete harness wiring.

If wiring is done correctly, the installation time of the wire harness assembly process decreases rapidly.

Lay out the wiring harness

Lay out the wiring harness


Complex wiring is like a nervous system for your vehicle.

If not done correctly, one or more electrical accessories may stop working overtime. If you need any support, Cloom technicians are here to help you.

Our knowledgeable and expert team of engineers and technicians can guide you through the entire process.

Also, we manufacture high-quality custom wiring harnesses and cable assemblies for various application requirements. 

Voltage Imbalance: How to Deal With This Power System Fault

Voltage Imbalance

In industrial plants, electrical power issues are pretty common. Current harmonics, voltage unbalance, and current unbalance some of them. 

These issues lead to abnormal functioning of the electric power systems.

Of all of them, the unbalanced voltage condition is the most hazardous.

Let’s learn about voltage imbalance issues and how to prevent them.

What Is Voltage Imbalance?

There is no particular definition of voltage imbalance, it is simply the voltage difference between different phases. 

Generally, in three-phase motors or polyphase systems, the voltage between different phases should be equal or nearly equal.

However, due to some issues, three-phase voltages become unequal, resulting in negative or zero sequence currents.

Major Effects of Voltage Imbalance

Sometimes, there are extensive voltage imbalances.

As a result, it impacts polyphase motors and other electrical loads. 

Unbalanced voltage mainly causes motor failure due to extreme heat.

Because the voltage unbalances produce high unbalance currents, these currents produce heat and increase the winding temperature.

As a result, it can damage motor insulation. 

Also, a severe imbalance in voltage can lead to the overheating of components in the motor, and there can be severe or permanent damage to the motor.

Motor failures, in turn, lead to user facility downtime.

Voltage imbalance also creates negative sequence voltage, and this negative voltage produces opposite torque.

As a result, there is vibration and noise in the motor. 

Sometimes, imbalances in power systems also lead to transformer failure, and relay malfunction is also one of its adverse effects.

motor winding

Image: motor winding

Causes and Sources

Several factors affect voltage imbalance in a distribution line, which is either general or motor-related.


  • Unequal distribution of single-phase loads
  • Overloading in feeders due to electrical faults
  • Faulty equipment
  • Unbalanced power source voltage


  • Wrong tapping in the transformer
  • Unbalanced load in three phases
  • An Unequal impedance of the three-phase distribution system
  • Unbalanced loading of capacitors

Image: overload

Voltage unbalance standards

Specific standards decide the limit of voltage unbalance, and ANSI recommends a 3 percent unbalance in voltage for electrical systems.

You must take this percentage under no-load conditions.

However, according to Pacific Gas and Electric, this voltage imbalance percentage should not exceed 2.5.

According to NEMA MG-1-1998, there is just a 1 percent unbalance limit, and this rule is the strictest.

NEMA is an association that represents motor manufacturers.

Per the NEMA rule of 1% voltage imbalance, a current unbalance 6-10%.

On the other hand, some makers fix the current imbalance value to less than 5%.

It is essential to get a valid warranty, which means the makers’ requirements are stricter than NEMA MG-1.

At times, disputes arise between customers and makers due to this difference.

Thus, you need to check the service guidelines of the utility at a specific location.

Testing for Voltage Unbalance

To test the voltage unbalance, you must measure phase-to-phase voltage.

The 3-phase system has a connection across phases.

Thus, do not measure phase-to-neutral voltages.

Take the phase-to-phase voltage readings with a voltmeter. 

According to IEEE, it is a ratio of the positive and negative sequence components.

Now, use this formula to calculate the percentage of voltage unbalance.

Voltage unbalance percent = 100* (maximum voltage deviation/average voltage)

The average voltage is the average of voltages across all three phases. 

This formula identifies the unbalanced voltage magnitude present in the system.

If there is any, you must determine the problem source.

The unbalanced situation can be due to the motor or the power.

Follow these steps to know the source of unbalance:

  • Firstly, measure and note down the current through each load
  • Secondly, rotate all power lines (three) by one position. However, please do not change the order; it will change the motor’s rotation.
  • Now, again measure the current across all leads in this new position.
  • Now, again rotate all power lines by one more position.
  • Again, record the current across all lines in the new position
  • For every three rotations, calculate the average value of the current. Observe the power line/motor lead combination that shows the maximum deviation from the average current.
  • Finally, compare all three power lines with the most current deviations. If the combination always has the same motor lead, the problem is with the motor. On the other hand, the same power line in combination indicates a problem with the power supply.
electrician testing industrial machine

Image: electrician testing industrial machine

Voltage Unbalance Mitigation

The issues of power quality are obvious in distribution networks.

You cannot make voltage imbalance as Zero in a distribution system because of three reasons:

  • Firstly, the connection and termination of single-phase loads are random
  • Secondly, due to the uneven distribution of loads in the three-phase system
  • Finally, due to the asymmetry of the power system

However, you can mitigate it after a thorough voltage imbalance study.

To reduce the effects of voltage unbalance, you can use the following:

Utility level methods.

  • Redistribute single-phase loads across all phases.
  • Reduce unequal impedance due to transformers and lines
  • Decrease single-phase regulators to correct the imbalance. However, you must use them carefully.
  • Use active and passive electronic systems to correct voltage imbalances.

Plant-level methods:

  • Do load balance?
  • Avoid connecting sensitive equipment to systems with single-phase loads
  • Make sure that you size the AC side and DC link reactors properly.
  • It reduces the effect of voltage imbalance in speed drives.
  • Have passive networks.


The impacts of Voltage imbalance are harmful to motors.

Thus, you must adequately find and correct the problem.

When you balance voltage, the life cycle of equipment becomes better.

As a result, you save time, energy, and maintenance costs.

Thus, it would be best if you properly tested the electrical equipment.

We can help you in managing your electrical systems.

We deal in premium quality cable assemblies.

Live Testing: How to Do It While Avoiding any Health Risks and Problems

An electrician checking an industrial machine

There are two things you want in your facility.

First, you need the gear to deliver optimal and consistent performance. Additionally, the equipment shouldn’t cause any damage or accidents, with injuries. 

Live testing can help to maintain both goals. It involves checking if the gear works right while it’s operating. 

But, there is something you should know before working near or around the energized equipment.

What Does Live Testing Mean?

Caption: An electrician working on maintaining electrical equipment

If you handle electric testing sessions, you should turn off the power supply to the gear.

The experts recommend deactivating it for personnel safety.

The problem is that you can’t test a device’s performance without checking how it works.

Live testing involves checking the system while the power supply is active.

It helps in finding faults, but it also carries more significant risks.

Therefore, you should ensure trained electricians handle the action.

The experts suggest that live testing is possible on all gear and conductors that work at no less than 50 volts.

The Electricity at Work Regulations suggests when live testing should occur:

  • If the device vitals need to remain “live” at all times.
  • The electrician can do the checks while the device is “live.”
  • If you take all precautions to maintain safety and prevent injuries.

Tests That We Carry Out “live”

The device list is up to you to decide.

As for the series of tests to take, here are the ones that the experts recommend.

Polarity Tests

This test involves circuit breakers, switches, and fuses.

In other words, these are single-pole devices connected to the PHASE conductor.

The idea is to confirm the relationships are optimal.

That way, we ensure the electricians did the setup right. It minimizes the damage risk for the entire apparatus.

And you’ll only need a plug-in tester. You’ll read the numbers on the charts to confirm the correct polarity.

Earth Loop Impedance Test

Let’s assume that a fault occurred in the electrical system.

The circuit breaker or fuse should get enough current flow to protect the faulty circuit.

It ensures the earth cable resistance is low enough to continue operating correctly.

You do loop tests to see if the circuit disconnects on time to keep a fire or overheating from happening.

You can use no-trip testing with three wires.

Label testing involves connecting these to earth, neutral, and live conductors.

Make sure the test current isn’t higher than 15mA.

The process won’t trip MCBs; you don’t have to go around RCBOs and RCD.

That ensures you save time with this test.

Prospective Short Circuit Test

Technician testing a control panel

Caption: Technician testing a control panel

If this fault happens, the cable should handle enough current to blow a fuse or trip the MCB.

The guidelines indicate this should happen within five seconds for fixed gear. However, the time reduces to 0.4 seconds for any portable equipment.

The prospective short circuit test ensures the cable handles the fault as expected.

During this test, you check the current in live conductors when a fault occurs.

It’s necessary to check Line to Neutral and Line to Line in three-phase setups.

For single-phase installations, check Line and Neutral. Furthermore, write down the result in hundreds of amps.

Residual Current Device Test

If an electrical fault occurs, there should be a safe RCD “tripping.”

You will trip it on purpose during this test.

That way, you confirm it works quickly if a fault happens.

The RCD will turn off all the channels where the circuit receives power if it doesn’t trip.

The residual current device test is vital to keep electrocution incidents.

Here is how to do it:

  1. First, connect the equipment and adjust the desired RCD rating. The test starts with half of the rated tripping current of the device.
  2. If the RCD doesn’t trip, increase the rated tripping current. The average time to trip out is 0.3s.
  3. Increase the test rating to 5x the rated current. You should note that the RCD takes less time to trip than in the previous step. The change will only be minimal.

Electrical Lnjury Risks When Fault Finding and Testing on Energized Equipment

The problem with live testing is that it includes significant health hazards.

After the device selection, minimize the risks of potential issues.

Here are the problems that might happen!

Electrical Shock

An illustration of an electrical shock

Caption: An illustration of an electrical shock

If the electricity goes through your body, you have an electric shock.

The consequences might be dangerous and even fatal.

Electric shocks can cause severe burns on the surface and inside your body.

They can lead to a fall because they make you lose your balance.

It’s also possible a shock starts to come into contact with a conductor with a higher voltage.

You might also have problems making any movements, or your movements might be involuntary.


This term also refers to an electric shock.

However, electrocution describes a severe injury or fatal consequences of the shock.

The health risk depends on various factors and not only the voltage.

You must also assess how much current goes through the body and for how long.

Your breathing can stop if a current of as little as 30mA (1 amp) goes through your organism.

Winds over 1A can cause permanent damage to cells and burns.

A standard 125V circuit in households can send 15 amps of current to your body.

Therefore, it’s hazardous, and caution is necessary when dealing with electricity. 

Arc Flash

A spark explosion

Caption: A spark explosion

A significant electrical explosion happens when an arc fault happens.

The first byproduct of that event is an arc flash.

That includes heat and light that come from the blast.

Caption: how arc flash looks

If we are talking about the temperature, it can go up to 19,000C, and the usual range is about 3,000C.

As a comparison, the Sun has a temperature of 5,000C on its surface.

The heat from the arc flash can burn your clothing, skin, and even internal organ damage.

Therefore, it could have serious consequences.

Arc Blast

Apart from the flash, the explosion will create an arc blast, a pressure wave around the device that explodes.

The shots are strong and can throw you on the other side of the room.

Furthermore, they are loud, so you could deal with hearing damage.

Even your brain functions are in danger.

It’s not only the people who the blast can throw around.

The product can throw machinery and tools around, hurting you.

Burn Injuries

The dangers above can involve burn injuries.

So, they are a significant health hazard to the electricians and people in the facility.

The burn degree can vary depending on how close you are to the arc flash.

Some burns might be superficial, but others can be dangerous and even fatal.

What Can You Do to Minimize Health and Safety Risks?

The actual regulations depend on your location.

However, here is what you should consider when testing public devices.

Assess the Risks First

 Risk assessment illustration

Caption: Risk assessment illustration

What can go wrong during the live or “near-live” testing?

You should hire a qualified person to assess the risks.

Apart from the arc flash and direct electric shock, you should consider conductive materials, and these have paths that the prospective fault current can follow to cause a shock.

Here is how risk assessment works:

  1. A qualified staff member should assess the current situation. That involves finding potential electrical and other risks during the test. Make sure it’s comprehensive coverage of potential hazards.
  2. The testing should comply with any laws and regulations.
  3. There should be a risk assessment report in writing.
  4. The report should contain suggestions on how to manage the risks.

Don’t Forget the SWMS

This is short for a Safe Work Method Statement, and the regulations require it.

You need a qualified person to write it; this report can include the actual risk assessment.

Here is how writing SWMS works:

  1. Talk with any relevant workers to find potential risks.
  2. Discuss which work is a part of the plan for the test.
  3. What measures can help to manage the risks? It should include additional info on each risk control action. Additionally, it should review if the relevant staff takes that action.

The person doing the test should be aware of the SWMS.

If you change any work or safety procedures, you might need to change this document, too.

Use Personnel with Adequate Training

It’s needless to say that a professional should do real-time testing.

They should understand how devices work and know how to use relevant instruments.

Furthermore, they should also be aware of safety issues.

Knowing how to act to minimize risks is vital for safety, and it ensures that the ongoing testing efforts and the process go smoothly.

The Importance of the Protective Gear

Industry experts call this personal protective equipment (PPE).

It’s vital to adjust it to the needs of the individual tests.

Here is what protective equipment staff should use:

  • Face. The individual should wear a full shield in case of an arc flash. Check the availability status of the shield before beginning the test. Additionally, don’t wear spectacles with metal frames.
  • Gloves. What voltage do you expect? The authentication options should only include gloves that can handle the expected voltage.
  • Clothing. The highest thermal rating with flame-resistant materials is the smart move. You don’t want to wear synthetic or flammable material.
  • Footwear. Your shoes might be conductors. Make sure they aren’t before you enter the pre-production test environment.

Safety Barriers, Signs, and Observers

A warning sign

Caption: A warning sign

A safety barrier helps avoid contact with a dangerous part of the electrical setup.

You’ll need to assess whether these barriers are necessary for individual tests.

There shouldn’t be issues with an unauthorized request because safety is everyone’s top priority.

You can use plastic, wood, or another non-conductive material for the barrier.

Make sure the border won’t fall if you accidentally hit it.

It’s the minimum version of sturdiness it should have. 

It would help if you had safety signs, too.

These are warnings to people who might enter the test area, and you can avoid a civilian disrupting the ongoing testing efforts and potentially suffering injuries.

The regulations also recommend a safety observer.

For each piece in the device list, they monitor optimal risk management on the spot.

If an emergency occurs, the observer should act to minimize the risk.

Knowing the facility and device details can help with that. 

The observer should talk to the staff member doing the test.

And forget about mobile devices because communications need to be direct and effective.

Work Completion

If you deactivate the power supply, don’t rush with energizing the devices.

Here is what you need to confirm first:

  1. Check if you removed any waste or private devices you used during the individual tests.
  2. Place covers and guards back in their places.
  3. Make sure to remove and note any temporary earthing equipment or electrical bonding.
  4. You must warn employees that you have finished unit tests and plan to turn the power on.

What If You Don’t Finish the Work?

A single day might not be enough for the entire assembly of tests.

If that happens, you can leave the unit tests for another time. However, make sure that the place remains safe.

The safety actions when postponing application testing include:

  • Shroud or terminate exposed conductors.
  • Furthermore, it would be best if you physically secured them.
  • Make sure to place warning signs about the tests on any device windows you plan to check
  • Put additional information panels for other employees to avoid potentially risky areas.
  • Make sure you inform the workers about the current index status. That way, you ensure they can continue to work safely.

Use Approved Equipment

Here is another crucial safety point.

If you want to test an actual device, use only approved equipment to ensure accurate testing results and show precise device vitals.

If you don’t have adequate equipment, don’t use an alternate version, which increases the risk of something going wrong.

Make a careful device selection and use only proven instruments during testing.

Electrical equipment

Caption: Electrical equipment


There are situations when only live tests can give more info on the device’s vitals.

If you plan to test equipment while the power supply is active, consider safety a top priority.

You can protect everyone involved in the approved ongoing testing efforts.

And if you need help with electrical wiring, don’t hesitate to contact Cloom.

We have years of experience and can meet any requests your facility needs!


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